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Rheumatism

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Rheumatism

is an inflammatory process affecting the connective tissue of the cardiovascular system and developing normally, after pereneslas respiratory infection.

Classification

  • cardiac or rheumatic heart disease
  • articular or rheumatoid arthritis (articular rheumatism)
  • the so-called St. Vitus’s dance or chorea rheumatic
  • cutaneous
  • rheumatic pleurisy.

Reasons

The disease usually develops after pereneslas infections of the upper respiratory tract, which was triggered by the strep. Antibodies produced against bacteria, affect not only the enemy of the pathogen, but also tissue of the heart.

In addition, an important role is played by genetic predisposition to the disease. Rheumatism in children occurs most frequently in those families where parents are ill.

Symptoms

Signs of rheumatic fever appear after one to two weeks after man Perens acute streptococcal infection. They are quite varied and depend on the form of the disease.


Defeat all the shells of the heart is characterized by cardiac rheumatism, symptoms of which are the following

  • loss of appetite, lack of energy, fatigue and sweating
  • stabbing and pulling pain in the breast
  • high temperature (over 38 degrees)
  • a moderate decrease in the tonus of heart muscle
  • heartbeat
  • the shifting boundaries of the heart
  • signs of weakening of the muscles of the ventricles of the heart.


In rheumatic arthritis, when the joints become inflamed, symptoms such

  • the defeat of the large joints
  • the symmetry of the inflammatory process
  • rapid response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • favorable course of arthritis without consequences.

In rheumatic chorea inflamed small vessels of the brain.


This is manifested as so

  • anxiety, which never leaves the patient quite a long time, increased activity of
  • constantly changing facial expressions, impaired handwriting and coordination. The patient can not keep in the hands of any small items
  • dysfunction of the pharynx, decreased muscle tone, weakening of the sphincter (incontinence, feces)
  • aggression, emotional instability. Happens and on the contrary a person becomes distracted, increased fatigue of muscles.


Symptoms of the cutaneous form of the disease the following

  • pale pink rash, resembling a ring-shaped bezel
  • painless and slow-moving tumors under the skin with a dense texture.


Rheumatic pleurisy has these symptoms

  • the respiratory movements are accompanied by pain, which increases during inhalation
  • high temperature
  • dry cough
  • noises in lgkih
  • shortness of breath
  • lack of breathing in the area of inflammation.

Diagnosis

There are several methods by which the diagnosis is made.

General analysis of blood allows you to set the number of leukocytes in the blood and the erythrocyte.

Biochemical blood analysis aimed at determining the quantitative content of C-reactive protein. This gives you the opportunity to confirm the presence in the body of the inflammatory process.

With the help of blood tests for antistreptolysin O, it becomes possible to detect antibodies against Streptococcus. The presence of antibodies suggests that a person recently Perens infection. However, this analysis can not accurately confirm the diagnosis.

Electrocardiogram in this disease shows irregularities in the heart.

In order to establish whether the changed heart size, x-rayed the sternum.

With ultrasound determines the size of the cavities of the heart, clarify the condition of the heart valves, as well as exploring the intensity and quality of blood flow.

Treatment

For the treatment of this disease used comprehensive therapy. E goal is the inhibition of the inflammatory process and provocateur. In addition, the treatment of rheumatic fever focuses on the prevention of heart disease.

This is done in several stages

  • inpatient treatment
  • the passage of course of treatment in the sanatorium with cardio-neurological bias
  • clinical supervision.

The hospital carried out medical treatment with an additional appointment of a special exercise. This takes into account such factors as characteristics of the disease and the degree of damage to the heart.

When drug therapy is assigned a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which are introduced into the body 11.5 months. Taking into account the indications these drugs are used individually or with hormones.

Antibacterial therapy lasts 1014 days.

Quinoline drugs are used for several months, and in some cases from one year to two years.

A course of treatments in the sanatorium, aimed for full recovery and rehabilitation of the cardiovascular system. Here treated chronic infection.

The third stage is aimed at excluding repeated outbreaks of the disease.

Complications

In cases where treatment was started in time, the person completely recovers.

Rheumatism of the heart may lead to atrial fibrillation and poor circulation.

In protracted, severe or latent form of the disease sometimes formed valvular heart disease. Most commonly affected are the mitral valve.

Prevention

Prevention this disease can be primary and secondary.


Primary includes

  • improving the health of the immune system
  • identify acute and chronic infection and subsequent treatment
  • the prevention of disease in children with hereditary predisposition to the disease, as well as those who are subject to frequent attacks of nasopharyngeal infection.


Secondary prevention

Designed to prevent repeated outbreaks and the progression of the disease. Thus patients are put on considered in the clinic and are under the supervision of a physician.

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