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Hyperparathyroidism


Hyperparathyroidism

is a disease characterized by extreme activity of the parathyroid glands, causing high levels of parathyroid hormone. This work of parathyroid glands is also named generalized fibrous osteodystrophy or illness of Recklinghausen.

These glands are located in the front of the neck, secrete parathyroid hormone, whose function is to maintain calcium balance in the blood and tissues. The balance of calcium necessary for proper function of many body systems.

Recklinghausen disease can exist in three forms. The first is

primary hyperparathyroidism

which is characterized by increased levels of calcium (hypercalcemia) due to the increase of the parathyroid glands. The second kind

secondary hyperparathyroidism

or nutritional hyperparathyroidism. This type of disease is based on the long existence of hypocalcemia (low calcium levels) caused by the failure of the gastrointestinal tract or diuretic system. And the third

tertiary hyperparathyroidism

that can be caused by prolonged development of secondary or renal failure in progressive stages.

There is still a Recklinghausen disease – neurofibromatosis, which is transmitted by inheritance, forming many tumors in the skin during peripheral nerve, skin pigmentation, skin nevi (warts) and bone abnormalities.

Reasons

So, we can summarize the above and on the basis of types of disease of Recklinghausen, to determine e main, common causes

  • the increase of the parathyroid glands
  • the complexity in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract
  • some failures in the functioning of the diuretic system, such as renal failure.

Hyperparathyroidism is most often seen in the period from 20 to 50 years. More prone to this disease women in menopause, people with a rare disease – multiple endocrine neoplasia of the first type, people who have undergone treatment with radiation exposure to the neck and lithium.

Symptoms

Symptoms may be poorly specific and not noticeable. The manifestation of the disease in some cases can be quite similar with the characteristics of disruption of the parathyroid glands. However, the disease at the same time may cause very severe symptoms.

Thus, the main characteristic of hyperparathyroidism symptoms

  • bone fragility, which can cause an increased risk of fracture
  • kidney stones
  • excess fluid in the urine flow
  • pain in the abdomen, loss of teeth
  • a feeling of weakness, in particular the muscular and pretty soon fatigue
  • the decline in the quality of the memory
  • depression
  • pain in the joints and bones, the feet
  • unjustly bad feeling
  • poor appetite, weight loss, nausea and vomiting, and even thirst.

Complications

Complications from this disease are manifested primarily by low level of calcium in the bones and high its level in the blood. Complications of the disease Recklinghausen following

  • weakness, brittle bones – osteoporosis
  • the change in the level of calcium to the lowest rates increases the risk of fracture
  • elevated levels of calcium in the blood is often caused by calcium deposits and other substances in the kidney that forms stones
  • elevated calcium has a relationship with the functioning of the cardiovascular system, especially hypertension ( high blood pressure)
  • advanced forms of this disease during pregnancy causes reduced levels of calcium in the body of the child in some cases.

Diagnosis

Elevated levels of calcium in the blood can be an accompanying symptom to many diseases, therefore, to identify specifically Recklinghausen disease, additional diagnostic in several ways

  • testing the density of bone tissue when using the method of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This testing process is called osteodensitometry
  • the analysis of urine. This procedure will be able to determine the efficiency of the kidneys and the amount of calcium in the urinary fluid. After the analysis, you can determine the severity of hyperparathyroidism and possible related diseases of the genitourinary system
  • to diagnose kidney stones in particular used the process of x-ray
  • parathyroid gland it is possible to view on ultrasound. Mostly this technique is used in the preoperative period, because before surgery it is necessary to accurately determine the place where you’ll lose
  • radioisotope scanning using the drug sestamibi. A certain very small amount of the drug is injected into the blood to absorb his parathyroid gland. Such a process makes a real visualization of the gland on CT
  • as a possible diagnostic option – biochemistry of urine and blood, densitometry, scanning glands.

Treatment

Some patients prescribed only systematic observation. In the case when the level of calcium undergoes minor changes, the kidney functions without disturbances, the density of bone tissue in norm and associated symptoms are detected, the disease only needs to be monitored regularly through blood work 1 time a year.

If necessary, surgical intervention, you must know that this process of treatment is effective in 90% of cases. In the process of surgery to remove only to be struck and an enlarged portion. General anesthesia can be avoided by applying only a small incision and local anesthesia action.

Any surgical procedure there is a risk of postoperative complications. You can be amazed by the vocal cords, and there is a threat of lowering the level of calcium in the chronic level. However, these complications occur infrequently.

Treatment with drugs that may be prescribed by a physician, consists of the following groups of drugs calcimimetic, hormonesensitive, bisphosphonates.

Monitor calcium levels, drink more water, give up harmful habits and substances that increase the calcium level.