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Enteritis

  1. Symptoms
  2. Reasons
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Enteritis

the disease is acute or chronic, which appear dystrophic and inflammatory changes in the small intestine, leading to disruption of the natural process of absorption of its walls beneficial nutrients and resizing cells of the mucosa (atrophy). Enteritis the disease is common. It appears alone or associated with other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. When it appears alone it is a primary enteritis when other pathologies secondary enteritis. Enteritis traditionalisme disease because of the large number of symptoms, which is oiled.

Types

It can occur in two forms acute and chronic. Also the acute form can transform to chronic.

The acute form of enteritis (acute enteritis) is usually caused by a bacterial infection in people it is called the disease of dirty hands. It passes rapidly with pronounced symptoms. In severe cases often leads to perforation and bleeding of the intestinal wall with subsequent development of peritonitis. Peritonitis is an inflammatory process that develops rapidly and affects all systems and organs.

Chronic form (chronic enteritis) has several stages, and in the pathological process retracts the entire body. It is characterized by frequent exacerbations and periodic manifestation of symptoms. The periodic manifestation of symptoms in turn complicates the correct diagnosis of the chronic forms.

It is proved that in countries with a hot climate diseases such as enteritis is diagnosed more often than in countries with a temperate climate. Often the onset of enteritis is closely related to the prolonged use of antibiotics and other drugs antibacterial nature, frequent intake of alcohol.

Especially dangerous is the enteritis in children. This is because to identify the cause of the disease is very difficult, and then to begin correct treatment will not immediately.


Symptoms

The clinical picture of acute enteritis as follows nausea, diarrhea, bloating, rumbling, pain in the upper abdomen, vomiting. In the language appears plaque is white, sooner or later begins to feel dizzy, a weakness, increased body temperature to 39 degrees, lost appetite.

If time does not resolve the diarrhea, the body is waiting for dehydration and the appearance of the following symptoms

  • pressure drop
  • circulatory collapse sharp drop in blood pressure due to the decrease in circulating blood volume
  • convulsions of the limbs.

Chronic enteritis symptoms

Variation of symptoms of chronic enteritis are wider as it’s a long process that affects all systems of the human body. All the symptoms can be divided into the following groups pain syndrome of intestinal dyspepsia and malabsorption. The last group is divided into three stages.

Pain

This symptom is optional. The most commonly obtuse, rarely with spasms. Pain can occur when walking, or shaking of the body (during a jump).

The syndrome of intestinal dyspepsia

Characterized by complaints of pressure, bloating, rumbling in the abdomen, bloating (especially after meals), diarrhea (56 times a day), less constipated. Stool liquid, frothy, hard to wash off, the color of light yellow and light green, abundant (about 2 kg per day).

A special feature of intolerance to milk and dairy products. This is due to the fact that it increases diarrhea and flatulence.

The deterioration of the patient is also smoked and salty food.

After a meal occurs in a cold sweat, trembling of hands, weakness, salivation, heart palpitation.

The malabsorption

The first stage. Reduced body mass (510 kg), there is weakness and fatigue, affected by the lack of vitamins, due to which starts dry and peeling skin, brittle nails, inflammation in the oral cavity, hair loss and blurred vision.

When the body receives enough calcium, the nerve endings increase their excitability. This can be verified by a test of muscle roller. It consists in following the edge of his hand gently hit the two-headed muscle of a shoulder. If the test is positive appear spasms of small muscles.

The second stage. 50% of patients significantly lose body weight more than 10 pounds. Increases the fragility of the nails, reduced pressure, observed skin hyperpigmentation (age spots appear in different shapes and sizes), there is muscle weakness. For males, possible erectile dysfunction, and for women amenorrhea. Due to deficiencies in vitamins B12 and B9, develops hypochromic anemia due to lack of hemoglobin. The main symptoms of hypochromic anemia, the cracks in the corners of the mouth and difficulty swallowing.

The third stage. 100% of patients losing more than 10 pounds of body weight. Due to the lack of nutrients dystrophy of the liver, kidneys and heart, simultaneously disrupted multiple endocrine systems.

At this stage the patient urgently requires hospitalization and inpatient treatment.


Reasons

Acute enteritis, symptoms of which are already known, is of such a nature

  • viral (papovavirus, influenza viruses, parvoviruses)
  • allergic (allergic to certain medications and food)
  • toxic (food poisoning, chemical poisoning)
  • food (eating large quantities of smoked, salty food, alcohol)
  • bacterial (E. coli, dysentery, Salmonella, cholera).

Chronic enteritis develops

  • the result of bacterial infections
  • on the background of other diseases of chronic pancreatitis, renal failure, gastritis
  • in cases of poisoning by poisons that are used in the production (arsenic, phosphorus, mercury, lead)
  • as the development of the acute form of chronic
  • as a consequence after therapeutic procedures
  • failure to comply with the diet, overeating and abuse of alcohol.


Diagnosis

To diagnose chronic enteritis is used in the following analyses.

Laboratory

  • biochemical analysis of blood it can determine the level of reduction of proteins and minerals
  • common blood test helps to determine the presence of anemia
  • bacteriological examination of feces defines dysbiosis
  • research on the presence in the intestinal juice of enterokinase and phosphatase
  • iodotoluene test determines the rate of absorption in the small intestine nutrients
  • capriform analysis of feces, which allows to determine the defects in the absorption of nutrients.

Instrumental

  • FGS (fibrogastroscopy) introduction through the oral cavity endoscope, which after ingestion gets into the digestive tract, where with the help of the built-in camera allows you to consider the condition of the mucous membrane of the small intestine.
  • Fluoroscopy with contrast medium according to the velocity of the contrast agent determine the functional state of the mucous membrane.


Treatment

When enteritis, the treatment of which is at the third stage, found chronic without medical intervention is necessary.

When there was chronic enteritis, the treatment necessary for its elimination

  • diet depending on the degree and stage of the disease the patient is prescribed a special diet
  • drug therapy antibiotics and other antibacterial drugs, in the case that the form of the disease hard to prescribe vitamins anabolic steroid hormones
  • in order to eliminate the pain and pain prescribed analgesics and antispasmodics.