the process of destruction of dental hard tissues pathological nature. In case of tooth decay there is localized demineralization, leading to softening of the enamel and dentin, which are tverdymi tooth tissues, causing a defect in the form of a cavity.
Lose teeth with dental caries can wear a single character or may arise in the plural. This process is the most rasprostranennoe cause of early loss of teeth.
rasprostranennoe most human disease worldwide. Tooth decay in children the first disease in the list of chronic. The data of different authors demonstrate that children with milk occlusion have a carious cavity in the amount of 8090 %, in adolescents, this process occurs in the amount of 80% and 9598 % of adults have filed teeth.
Dental nalt plays a direct role in the development of the greater part of dental diseases. In the process of caries development it is involved due to acids causing demineralization of the enamel, which is the most turday tissue in the human body.
The formation of these acids occurs during the fermentation of carbohydrates by microorganisms. The basic process of demineralization occurs at a depth 1015 m.
Initially, the development of caries shows a white spot on the enamel, which is a sub-surface damage to the enamel. In the absence of measures to stop this process, the damage will grow, which will lead to the formation of the open cavity due to the destruction of the surface layer of enamel.
Carious cavity is considered to be a source of chronic infectious processes in the body. Advanced stage of decay leads to the development of human sore throats, pharyngitis, gastritis, inflammatory processes of the genitourinary system, allergic reactions and chronic not only.
The reason this is important is the timely prevention of the disease, as well as the identification and elimination of caries in the early stages of development, as dental health has a direct impact on overall health.
Experts highlighted these forms of the disease
- tooth decay front teeth
- cervical caries
- baby bottle tooth decay
- secondary caries, etc.
The main reason that triggers the development of dental caries demineralization process of the tooth surface, which is caused by the effect on the tissues of the tooth acids produced during fermentation of carbohydrates in the formation of plaque.
The ability of the tooth surface to perceive the effects of the acids depends on the following factors
- the presence of conditions that allow the dentist nalto fixed in the oral cavity and to propagate the bacteria, forming acids that lead to the development of the disease
- deviations in functioning of the human saliva, in particular, the ability to provide a neutralizing effect on acids
- the peculiarities of nutrition and the human diet
- violations in the care of the oral cavity, improper oral hygiene
- the General condition of the body.
The classical form of tooth decay implies the existence of 4 basic shapes, which follow one another, affecting different levels tvrdik tissue of teeth.
Forms of caries are the following
- the carious spot the change in the normal color of tooth enamel in a certain place, is of a localized nature. The carious spot has a white, light or dark brown color with the presence of crngo shade. On poranna plot of observed loss of gloss of the enamel. The flow of this form of the disease characterized by the absence of symptoms in the acute form of the flow can occur the pain response to thermal stimulus
- superficial caries experience changes of a destructive nature on the spot carious spots, there is the appearance of a shallow defect does not extend beyond the enamel. Chemical and thermal stimuli provoke pronounced pain, in most cases, with the development of cervical caries. Also the pain can cause the process of brushing with a stiff brush
- average caries detection of shallow carious cavity, which is filled razmagcheniem dentin with pigmentation. Short-term painful sensations arise under the influence of stimuli mechanical, chemical and thermal stimulus. The sensations disappear after removal of the stimulus
- deep caries deep carious cavity, around which there is sagging of the enamel, which is filled with pigmented dentin, susceptible to softening. Painful sensations are observed when exposed to chemical and thermal stimuli. Duration of pain is characterized by the duration of stay of the stimulus in the cavity.
Early stages of tooth decay do not cause difficulties in the treatment of the disease. Enough to saturate the tooth enamel essential elements that privett stop the process of demineralization of tooth tissues.
In the case of medium or deep caries are eliminated povrezhdenii tissues of the tooth and subsequent filling porannego of the tooth. In some cases, for example, in the case of the treatment of cervical caries, sealing may be necessary on the stage surface caries.
To prevent the development of dental caries it is necessary, first, to observe the rules of oral hygiene, regular inspection by a specialist-dentist, establishment of proper nutrition, balanced diet. As a means of prevention of this disease can be used mouthwashes, chewing gum and other means to reduce the intensity of work acids, to eliminate dental nalt and to resist oxidation.