- The symptoms of aortic heart defect
- Diagnosis of malformation of the mouth of the aorta
- Treatment of aortic defect of the myocardium
Aortic stenosis (stenosis of estuary of aorta)
a very common disease in which narrows the mouth of the aortic valve, which impedes the natural flow of blood. This defect of the myocardium, is about 4 times more common in the male half of the world’s population and 25% of the known cases, stenosis of the aorta. There are three key locations of valvular, subvalvular and it’s a supravalvular.
For the acquired varieties of this defect of the myocardium secrete a number of precipitating factors, for example, rheumatic, atherosclerosis, endocarditis and degenerative processes. Rheumatic endocarditis causes thickening and rigidity of the valves, which leads to narrowing of the mouth and disrupts the natural flow of blood. Often the cause of acquired heart defect is calcification of the aortic valve which impairs the mobility of the valves. Rheumatic stenosis often develops in parallel with aortic insufficiency and other heart disease known as mitral valve stenosis.
The congenital variety of aortic stenosis often develops when the aortic valve has two flaps.
Valve apparatus of the myocardium during aortic disease, has a tendency of calcification and provokes the progress of the disease. In patients of advanced age sometimes there is a kind of acquired non-rheumatic forms, caused by calcification. Significant growth defect generates overload of the left ventricle, resulting in blood flow to many organs is disturbed, and it suffers from a brain of the patient.
The most frequent cases of developing age-related calcification of the tricuspid or vrozhdennoi forms of stenosis of the bicuspid valve. Sometimes, acquired aortic defect by myocardial infarction on the background of the underlying disease, which can be carcinoid syndrome, chronic renal failure, diabetes, lupus erythematosus, Paget’s syndrome and Kronos.
The symptoms of aortic heart defect
Found congenital aortic stenosis, symptoms of which appear not earlier than 20 years. For aortic stenosis in the early stages, takes place without pronounced symptoms. And activity manifested weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, angina and fainting. These symptoms are as a result developed long illness. Visually, as well as measuring the pulse or blood pressure, to detect aortic heart defect is very difficult, as these indicators remain normal for very long. Most of the symptoms appear only in late stages of the disease when normal blood flow is significantly impaired.
Found aortic heart defect, symptoms of which is talking about the severe form of the disease or a late stage of its development, is pale, weak and slow pulse (characterized by a small filling and flatness of the pulse), as well as lowering blood pressure. Clinical examination may show the background to hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Just above the aorta may be systolic murmur, which increases on exhalation and suspension of breath, but it may become weaker with the development of heart failure. One of the most significant symptoms reporting heart disease is jitter just above the aorta is felt on palpation.
Potential complications of aortic valve stenosis
The severity of aortic stenosis determined by observing the degree of manifestation of circulatory disorders and the dimensions of the left ventricle, insufficiency which formed late and poorly to therapy. Complications progress of the aortic defect can be various circulatory disorders (especially coronary and cerebral), infectious form of endocarditis, and acute rheumatism. Calcification of the aortic valve, manifested in severe form, can act as a cause of vascular embolism. The result of complications calcification can become even sudden death, is possible before the formation of a developed heart failure.
Diagnosis of malformation of the mouth of the aorta
One of the most effective and widely used methods of diagnosis for symptomatic aortic defect of the myocardium is Echocardiography to detect hypertrophic phenomena in the left ventricle and the presence of calcification. Electrocardiography is an excellent diagnostic tool and is able, for example, to indicate the conditions of growth of the size of the left ventricle and ascending change of conductivity of the bundle branch block.
In addition to Echocardiography and ECG, used x-ray examination, which shows the change in the size of the left ventricle. In severe aortic stenosis, x-rays enables to identify the size of the ascending aorta and calcification. Advanced stages of the disease can be diagnosed by the effects of the stagnation of the pulmonary circulation, a large volume of the left atrium and increased right side of the heart. Changes in the size and proportions of the ventricles, usually provoked by coronary insufficiency. Complicated shapes, especially in the later stages, characterized by increasing the size of the left atrium, in some cases, there may be atrial fibrillation.
Aortic stenosis, which treatment has not given results may not have been correctly diagnosed. Since certain types of heart defects produce similar diamond-shaped systolic murmur. Stenosis of estuary of aorta is necessary to distinguish between, for example, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and, rarely, congenital – subvalvular and supravalvular stenosis of the aorta. In addition to the above diagnostic methods, establish an accurate location of stenosis with x-ray contrast studies and angiography.
Treatment of aortic defect of the myocardium
With acquired aortic stenosis in the first place the therapy of the primary disease. All types of stenosis are treated according to the intensity of their development. The slow and silent development of heart disease does not require urgent surgical treatment, rapidly developing stenosis usually requires surgical prosthetic aortic valve. Intense complication of the symptoms of aortic heart disease is a much greater risk to health or even life of the patient than complex surgical intervention.
Aortal defect, treatment is delayed, which transferred the disease to the late stage of development or severe, leaving patients no more than a few years of life. In cases when open heart surgery is contraindicated (adolescents, patients with poor health and the elderly), can be assigned to balloon valvuloplasty was. This technique consists in putting a thin cylinder in the valve hole, and then inflate and, thereby, to expand the mouth of the aorta. Balloon valvuloplasty was it more reliable and safe procedure than open heart operation. Older people who have aortic valve stenosis, treatment in the form of the procedure is not prescribed, because age-related changes in the body make its effect short-lived.