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Yellow fever

  1. Symptoms
  2. Treatment


Yellow fever

an acute viral infection. Refers to the natural focal is transmitted mainly by mosquitoes. Very heavy to carry a man, accompanied by fever, intoxication, kidney damage, liver (in various manifestations, including jaundice), bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. The causative agent yellow fever virus, called tropicus Viscerophilus, belongs to the family Togoviridae (genus Flavivirus). He has shown antigenic similarity with the dengue viruses, Japanese encephalitis virus and St. Louis. Flora is pathogenic for white mice and monkeys.

The yellow fever virus instilled and developed in the chicken embryo thus developed a vaccine. The virus loses activity during processing with high temperatures and under the influence of disinfectants. In the frozen and dried state for a long time retains its properties.

Symptoms

Yellow fever, whose symptoms must be distinguished from fever, pappatachi, other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue and viral hepatitis, is in the incubation period from 3 to 6 days. Clinically can be divided into three stages of development of the disease. The initial febrile stage, the stage of remission, reactive stage. In severe form of the disease remission may not be.

Sudden severe headache, sharp pain in the back, loins and limbs, with a body temperature of 39 to 40 degrees can be the beginning of the disease. Strong palpitations (up to 130 beats per min.), swelling of the face, usually appears during the first day of active development of the yellow fever virus. During the second day of nausea, vomiting mucus and bile, thirst. During the inspection of the sides of the tongue in a patient noticeable blush, while oral mucosa is hyperemic, dry tongue. Next, there is cyanosis of mucous membranes and skin, jaundice, vomit of blood is observed.

This may be followed by remission, in which a pronounced improvement including normalization of body temperature, after which a new force is developing blood clotting, resulting in bleeding and bloody vomiting, bradycardia (4050 beats per min), sharply falling blood pressure, fever starts. In severe cases, the disease can be fatal. In the case of a favorable development in a week as the patient improves. Also occur in more mild forms of the disease, but there are a lightning of the variety.

Treatment

It is recommended to undergo treatment in the infectious disease Department to treat dangerous infections hospital. Yellow fever, treatment of which is primarily aimed at supporting the immune system, and relief of manifestations of symptoms, requires compliance with bed rest and drinking high-calorie semi-liquid that does not require energy expenditure to digest, food. In the initial stage of possible plasma transfusion. During fever the patient is given a blood transfusion in the number 125150 ml a day, administered Campolon and Antianemic, intramuscular iron to compensate for blood loss. In the complex therapy recommended the use of anti-inflammatory or corticosteroid, antihistamines, hemostatic, and medications to support the activities of the heart and blood vessels. If necessary are performed resuscitative measures.

Prevention

To conduct preventive actions necessary to monitor the movement of people from the contaminated zone. As part of the personal protective and preventive measures, use insect repellent, mosquito nets, etc. More reliable form of prevention is vaccination against yellow fever. In a possible foci of infection with the virus of yellow fever vaccination is the only reliable method of immunization. Specific immunization conducted persons in the age hall from 9 months to 60 years. Immunity to the disease develops in 95% of people over the week, vaccinated and will retain their activity for at least 10 years, after 10 days from the date of introduction of the vaccine.

Recommended for prevention of diseases of the vaccinated individuals, regardless of age, before leaving in potentially dangerous areas. Disease in immigrants is severe, a high percentage of lethal outcome. There are some restrictions on vaccination against yellow fever. These include progressive, malignant diseases, infectious diseases in the active form and active therapy aimed at suppressing the immune system. To uncharacteristic contraindications include Allergy to egg whites, HIV or AIDS. No special appointments do not recommend the use of the vaccine for pregnant women and children up to six months. If declared, the epidemiological situation, after consulting a doctor valid vaccination for pregnant women and children from the age of four months. Persons prone to allergic reactions, recommended to conduct the test by intradermal injection of the vaccine. If the continuation 1015 minutes followed by adverse reactions, can be administered subcutaneously the remaining dose of vaccine.

Certificate of the international sample on the vaccination against the yellow fever virus require whilst visiting such countries Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Gabon, Congo, Cameroon, Liberia, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Peru, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, French Guiana, Central African Republic, Bolivia.

It is recommended to have certificate of the international sample on the vaccination against the yellow fever virus when visiting the following countries Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Guyana, Colombia, Panama, Suriname, Ecuador, Angola, Burundi, the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Zambia, Kenya, Nigeria, Somalia, Senegal, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia.

Complications

The effects of yellow fever Express itself in the following diseases gangrene soft tissue or extremities, pneumonia, myocarditis, suppurative inflammation because of the imposition of a secondary bacterial microflora, etc.