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Whooping cough

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Treatment


Whooping cough

respiratory disease, which is infectious in nature. Often characterized by paroxysmal spasmodic cough. The causative agent is a bacterium called Bacillus pertussis.

Reasons

The main source of infection of pertussis in the natural environment is people. The risk of infection through contact with a carrier of the Bacillus pertussis is 90 % before the advent of the pertussis cough and 3 weeks after whooping cough. Route of infection droplet.

In the case of the first impact of the infection on the body, pertussis is not a natural immune defense, resulting in possible re-infection occurring in the mild form of the disease. People who suffered whooping cough or were vaccinated against whooping cough, might carry paracoccus.

The pathogen penetrates into the mucosa of the bronchi and bronchioles, in fewer cases fall into the trachea, the nasopharynx and the larynx. In the place of penetration of bacteria is the development of inflammatory processes which may occur the process of ulceration of the epithelial layer of the respiratory tract.

With the development of pertussis is observed ognennaya activity of epithelial cells, increased mucus, swelling of the lesions and the process of plugging gaps small bronchus.

The toxin, which identifies the causative agent of the disease directly affects the Central nervous system, irritating the nerve receptors in the mucosa of the respiratory tract that causes coughing. Constant irritation the process triggers the process of forming the excitation focus of infection in the respiratory centers.

The spread of pertussis widely around the world. Each year the number who suffered whooping cough is around 60 million people. Most often there is whooping cough in children, approximately half of the patients were children under the age of two years.

The countries that have been vaccinating against pertussis, also affected by the disease. A survey of people complaining of prolonged cough, pertussis infection show in 2026 % of cases.

Prevention is the specific nature of carried out in children aged from 3 months to 3 years, if they are not sick with whooping cough. Vaccination against pertussis allows you to completely prevent the development of the disease or contribute to the occurrence of a disease in a mild form.

Symptoms

The duration of the period for which incubated whooping cough in adults and children, amounts to 315 days, the average duration of incubation period of 58 days.


Catarrhal

period

3-14 days, in the case of whooping cough infants 37 days. For the first time there is a dry cough, which over time increases, representing the main symptom of whooping cough. Towards the end of this period of development of the disease the cough is more paroxysmal, occurring at night.

In children in some cases, the cough may end with vomiting. In some cases, there may be a sharp increase in temperature to 39S, and higher level. In most cases, the body temperature of a patient with pertussis human remains normal or is low grade in nature. In frequent cases there is a runny nose.

Signs of pertussis in infants in the first six months of life a short incubation period of the disease, catarrhal short-period, long-term wave-like development of the disease causing complications, pneumonia and enteralnye disorder.


Spasmodic period

Stage of whooping cough with a duration of a maximum of 34 weeks. Characterized by the manifestation of the typical cough of spasmodic or convulsive character, having the form of a series of rapid expiratory shocks follow each other, followed by a Reprise shaky breath accompanied by a characteristic whistle.

The appearance of a patient with pertussis during an attack of cough has a characteristic appearance reddish or bluish face, swollen neck veins, bloodshot eyes, the extension of the tongue out and Curling the tip up, watery eyes. The end of coughing accompanied by expectoration of high viscosity in severe forms of the disease vomiting.

Seizure frequency is not more than 1015 times a day, but in the case of severe forms of pertussis the number of attacks can be up to 30 or more. Children have severe spells of coughing may be accompanied by stopping the respiratory process, bleeding due to overexertion.


Reconvaleszenziu period

Phase lasting 12 weeks. During this period facilitated a cough, the number of attacks gradually decreases. In adults, the course of disease is characterized by absence seizures, the main manifestation of prolonged bronchitis with persistent cough.

The main reason why there are complications during the disease course, concomitant diseases considered to be of an infectious nature.

Treatment

Early effective treatment is the antibiotic cephalosporins of the III generation, semisynthetic penicillins, macrolides and others. The broad-spectrum antibiotics are appointed only to patients with complications in spasmodic period.

The main impact is aimed at the elimination of respiratory failure, the condition of oxygen starvation, due to aerogeliotherapy, massage, physical therapy, recovery of the airway, use of funds, increase the resilience of the Central nervous system to hypoxia, respiratory gymnastics.

Glucocorticoids are used in case of cough and very difficult breathing. Manifestations of encephalopathy is carried out anticonvulsant and dehydration therapy.

During treatment should eat foods that contain large amounts of vitamins. Food should preferably be taken between coughing episodes and in small doses. In the event of vomiting after a meal, it should be after 10-15 minutes again to collect food.

The period of convalescence from course 1 to 8 weeks prescribe drugs of Echinacea, tincture of Siberian ginseng, and vitamin-mineral complexes are shown physiotherapy, massage, breathing exercises.