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Myelodysplastic syndromes

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment

MDS, or

myelodysplastic syndromes

is a chronic blood disease in which impaired maturation of red blood cells. MDS can go into leukemia.


Symptoms of the disease

  • cytopenia, with decreasing of blood cells (platelets, leukocytes, erythrocytes) in the peripheral blood
  • dramatic changes in hematopoiesis germs
  • very strong risk of transfer of disease in acute leukemia.

To date MDS had different names smoldering

, maloprimetny acute leukemia, predacon and other.

Cases of MDS, a rare five cases per hundred thousand people per year. Whiter than 85% of all patients older than 60 years, because the risk increases in old age. Myelodysplastic syndrome in children is much rarer. 23 cases are secondary in relation to major diseases of the blood of the patient, such as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma,

and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Also found the disease after conducting cytostatic therapy, systemic


and chronic



Reason allocate a possible Prim cytotoxic drugs. Ionizing radiation and benzene derivatives also have an effect on the development of the syndromes.


The patient appear cyanotic discoloration on the skin like bruises, nasal and gingival bleeding, bleeding on the skin. In addition, there is shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. For the symptoms of myelodysplastic syndrome is characterized by the frequent incidence of infections, fever, weakness and fatigue.


  • peripheral blood smear

    • the analysis shows quantitative and qualitative changes in blood cells, their shape, type, size is the most important criteria in the diagnosis.
  • clinical analysis of blood

    • this analysis helps to find anemia (anemia) is the main symptom. It is found in 85-90% of patients. In addition, the analysis indicates the presence of such diseases leukopenia (characterized by a decrease in the number of leukocytes detected in 50%) and thrombocytopenia (characterized by a reduction in the number of platelets that leads to bleeding).
  • cytogenetic analysis

    • allows you to find changes in chromosomes of blood cells. This method is key in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.
  • aspiration

    • puncture and biopsy or bone marrow biopsy the removal of a bone marrow aspirate, in the order of 0.2-0.5 ml, and a small bone fragment. This procedure does not nest in a risk to the patient and is performed under local anesthesia with a duration of 2-5 min.

It helps to see the changes in the bone marrow to diagnose MDS. 20% revealed an enlarged spleen and liver.

The diagnosis is based on detection of qualitative and quantitative abnormalities in hematopoiesis in the sprouts of hematopoiesis (dysgranulopoiesis, dyserythropoiesis, dysmegakaryocytopoiesis) and data from cytogenetic studies.


The treatment is in the analysis of these factors, the forecast of occurrence of myelodysplastic syndrome of the disease, its form, the presence of concomitant diseases. Taken into account all the aspects that can influence the course of treatment.

The goal of treatment put obtaining remission and maintaining the quality of life for the patient. Treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome

  • the use of growth factors called colony-stimulating factors. Same when expressed anemia (anemia) – red blood cell transfusions, with severe bleeding – platelet transfusion
  • chemotherapy Dacogen, cytarabine, melphalan and other types of
  • bone marrow transplantation
  • immunosuppressive therapy, for example, antithymocyte globulin
  • the natural inhibitors of cell death bone marrow
  • inhibitors for the development of blood vessels thalidomid, Revlimid and other
  • Sandimmune, vesanoid
  • the combination of the above methods
  • if the prognosis is reasonably favorable it is possible to observe the patient while the blood counts and bone marrow stable
  • the best and only method to increase the life of the patients an allogeneic transplant of bone mosquitofish stem cells. But such an operation is not always possible due to patient’s age and the lack of a identical related donor.

Preserving the quality of life of patients comes to the fore – methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory and there are no standards for the therapy, but determined approaches to the treatment of different groups of people.