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Mutism

  1. Symptoms
  2. Reasons
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Mutism

this is a complete lack of speech under conditions of safety recidivating apparatus. A person suffering from mutism, retained the ability to speak, but an interactive and spontaneous speech, gestures and facial expressions are missing. Someone else’s speech while he is able to understand.

Symptoms

  • The lack of dialogue and spontaneous speech (answering questions, participating directly in the conversation), while someone else’s speech is understood. There is a lack of speech in children and adults
  • absolutely clear consciousness. The patient self-monitors objects, opens his eyes, but to fix attention on anything specific can be difficult. Also there is the alternation of phases of sleep-wakefulness (a person wakes up and goes to sleep) in healthy people
  • there is increased reaction to painful stimuli in the form of a rapid heartbeat and sweating. At the same time, motor response activity, may be completely absent, although sometimes the patient is moving quite actively, but does not speak (elective mutism).

Form

  • Elective mutism (psychogenic). This form of mutism develops on the background of some mental trauma (accident, rape, death of a loved one, etc.). While the patient can move actively, but not to talk (to refuse). If the patient discovered elective mutism, treatment appoints psychiatrist
  • akinetic mutism. There later of brain damage in severe form
  • selective mutism. One of the rarest disorders in childhood. Often the child has intact speech, but deliberately refuses to communicate in situations which are stressful (among adults, in the children’s team). This mutism in children is also known as selective mutism. Is most common among children under five years of age.

Reasons

  • The defeat of the internal divisions of the frontal lobe or the upper part of the brainstem (the part of the brain, where the respiratory and vasomotor departmental reticular formation, which ensures the activation of the brain)
  • brain tumor
  • poor circulation in the brain, including hematoma
  • (inflammation of the brain)

  • traumatic brain injury
  • the exit from a coma
  • some mental diseases such as hysteria and

    (violation of behavior and thinking)

  • very strong trauma (car accident, serious illness or death of a close relative).

Diagnosis

  • The analysis of anamnesis and complaints of the disease

    • how long has the patient ceased to answer questions, to move, to speak
    • what event directly preceded the cessation of speech (traumatic brain injury, emotional shock, loss of consciousness)
    • examination by a neurologist evaluation opening the eyes, reflexes, breathing rhythm, the presence of speech. The measurement of blood (arterial) pressure. Also necessary to search for other signs of pathology in the field of neuroscience that will help to find the cause of mutism (facial asymmetry, strabismus, impaired movement of the eyeball).
  • electroencephalography (EEG) this method evaluates the activity of different parts of the brain that tends to vary for different diseases
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) of the brain, these methods allow to study the structure of the brain in layers and find out the causes of impaired brain function
  • it is also possible to consult a speech therapist and a psychiatrist.

Treatment

  • If a person discovered mutism, treatment requires the following
  • directly addressing the reasons that caused the mutism

    • surgical care removal of hematoma, the installation of drainage into the ventricles of the brain
    • removal surgically of a brain tumor.
  • rehabilitation of speech functions in humans, the active use of facial expressions in conversation, discussions with patients
  • active psychological support interviews, direct assistance in coping with stress, dealing with traumatic events (car accident, death or serious illness of a close person)
  • people with psychiatric illnesses (schizophrenia) antipsychotic drugs necessary for their regular use contributes to the restoration of speech
  • nootropics (drugs that enhance the nutrition of brain)
  • in that case, if the patient is immobile, you need the following

    • comprehensive care for breathing (cleaning), oral cavity (teeth brushing), skin (wash)
    • full of high-calorie food (if the patient is not able to eat himself, in this case, it is introduced into the stomach tube)
    • medications that normalize the heart rate.
  • treatment of selective mutism involves a total change in the behavior of the people surrounding the child (school, family).

Prevention

  • Timely treatment of any infectious diseases
  • complete abandonment of all bad habits (alcohol, Smoking, drugs)
  • maintaining a healthy lifestyle (medical gymnastics, walking at least two hours, adherence of the day)
  • adherence to diet and nutrition, inclusion in the diet of vegetables and fruit, meals not less than three times a day
  • control blood (arterial) pressure
  • in case of any health problems be sure to timely treatment to the doctor.