this is a disease that provoke protozoa (Giardia), parasitic in the small intestine. Often accompanied by dyspepsia, neurological and allergic symptoms, but sometimes asymptomatic. Worldwide, the disease is recorded from 500 million people a year (danym who).
In that moment, when Giardia get into the gastrointestinal tract of humans, they begin to multiply in the small intestine, which leads to irritation of the mucous membrane. When they are in the colon, lose their mobility and become cysts, standing out from the body with feces. In the soil they can live for several weeks and in water for up to five weeks.
Giardiasis is most often seen in children, usually aged 1 to 4 years.
Giardiasis is an acute or chronic. In the first case the characteristic abdominal and dyspeptic syndromes, and the second recurrent course.
Giardiasis is transmitted via the faecal-oral route through water, soil, food products (especially vegetables, berries, fruits), dirty hands and objects of everyday life. The source of infection is often people.
Children suffer from intestinal form of giardiasis, while adolescents and adults experience a failure of the pancreas and gallbladder.
Symptoms of acute giardiasis
- nausea, flatulence, rumbling
- severe pain near the navel or the upper abdomen
- diarrhea (feces with fat inclusions, which float to the surface)
- temperature rise
- skin rashes
- a poor appetite.
The symptoms disappear after a few weeks on their own, after which the disease spills over into the chronic form.
Symptoms of chronic giardiasis
- dyspeptic manifestations (alternating diarrhea and constipation, nausea, tongue coating yellow, bloating, loss of appetite)
- moderate pain around the belly button and pain in the right hypochondrium, worse while a fatty meal
- allergic manifestations (rhinitis, pruritus, dermatitis, rashes, asthma)
- uneven skin color, severe pallor of the skin, hair loss, skin lesions around the lips
- irritability, fatigue, headaches and pain in the heart.
Sometimes giardiasis is without symptoms and is detected during the diagnosis of another disease.
The most common complication of giardiasis dysbacteriosis, and also sometimes there is enlargement of the liver (in adults). Mechanical damage to the intestinal wall leads to changes in the composition of its microflora (appear uncharacteristic of the normal intestinal flora microorganisms), development of biliary dyskinesia (violation of tone and motor function), pancreas, and the duodenum, decreasing absorption of nutrients, vitamins, etc.
The most affordable method of diagnosis of giardiasis is considered scatological study, but this study is not always found cysts in the stool. A more reliable method is the serological diagnosis (antibody in the blood can be seen in 2-4 weeks after an infection has taken place) and the study of duodenal contents with the help of EGD (fibrogastroduodenoscopy). Highly efficient method of diagnosis for the detection of antibodies to lamblia is considered to be PCR (polymerase chain reaction), as this analysis allows us to detect Giardia DNA in blood and biopsy with the small intestine.
Treatment of giardiasis need done step by step.
The first phase (1-2 weeks) includes diet, thanks to which there was a deterioration of process of reproduction of Giardia (vegetables, cereals, fruits, boiled meat, cheese, yogurt), enzyme therapy and reception choleretic drugs. The doctor prescribes enterosorbents and antihistamines that also need to be taken during the second and third stage of treatment.
During the second phase, the doctor will prescribe antiparasitic therapy with special drugs that affect protozoa Giardia.
During the third phase (2-3 weeks) still need to diet and to consume vitamin complexes and plant adaptogens in order to adjust the immune response. Prebiotics, probiotics and enzyme products must be taken for the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis.
To protect yourself and family from giardiasis, you need to fight with the flies that spread the disease, thoroughly wash vegetables, fruits, berries and greens. You should not drink water from open reservoirs and tap water must be boiled.