a disease that is characterized by local hyperpigmentation, manifested in the form of freckles or dark spots. Pigmentation appears directly under the influence on the skin of the sun, particularly on the face. Melasma and chloasma are a bit different concepts, as first characterized by spots on the skin, and the second spots all over the body. At the same time chloasma also referred to as melasma, melasma.
Specifically identified causes of pigmentation, because their nature is unknown. But still, there are several factors that can contribute to the development of pigmentation
- cosmetic products and procedures
- genetic factor
- hormonal changes
- exposure to ultraviolet rays
- the use of drugs that make the skin sensitive to UV rays
- the use of oral contraceptives.
Causes of chloasma can be natural or artificial nature.
There are several types of chloasma, depending on which pigmentation on the face may be differently to show themselves.
So, the most well-known types of chloasma
- the molar prevalence of about 20%, are localized spots on the nose or cheeks
- centrofacial found in 70% of people with melasma, the spots are on the forehead, nose, cheeks, chin
- the most common epidermal type melasma. Is characterized by superficial pigment spots, which are easy to treat. When lighting wood lamp, we can observe the color contrast between the different skin type
- mandibular for it separates the part about 10% of melasma. Spots are located mainly on the jaw line
- dermal has a clear line between normal skin and pigmentirovannoy, most difficult to treat
- epidermal-dermal contrast between the skin is only visible in some areas
- asymptomatic spots on the face can be detected only with the lamp of wood, is common in people with dark skin.
To diagnose pigmentation may be a dermatologist based on visual inspection and survey of the patient. Thus, the doctor will be able to determine the nature of occurrence of congenital or post-inflammatory pigmentation. For more information about the pigmentation will give siascopy, Dermoscopy. Minor diagnostic procedures are separate ultrasound of abdominal organs, ultrasound of the liver, coprogram analysis on a dysbacteriosis, etc.
First of all, those who have found chloasma, you should avoid frequent contact with sunlight. But if it’s not really possible, it is necessary to use protivozastojnye funds.
If a person is found chloasma, treatment is assigned depending on its forms and manifestations. That is when hormonal disorders is the correction of hormonal and metabolic disorders. This can be assigned to the b group vitamins, ascorbic acid, Riboflavin.
At the moment, not developed special methods for removal chloasma or its correction, so usually the treatment is limited to certain cosmetic procedures. In particular, there are two areas a reduction in the skin the formation of melanin (melanin synthesis inhibitors, derivatives of vitamin C, arbutin, hydroquinone, kojic and azelaic acid) and exfoliation of the Horny layer in the area of pigmentation (dairy glicheva acid, alpha-hydroxy acids).
When carrying a child treatment is better not to, as this can be common due to hormonal changes within the body.