A cancer of the bone (articular cartilage)
it is a malignant tumor that grows from cells of bone tissue and articular cartilage. The disease may be primary when the malignancy develops by itself and secondary when there is a process of degeneration and malignancy, benign tumors, or metastasis of cancer cells from other organs and systems. Cancers of bone and cartilage are rare according to statistical studies, these types of tissues affected by malignant growth of 1% of all cases of tumors. However, this type of cancer cannot be ignored, as it is a very serious disease with often adverse outcome.
It should be noted that the primary type of cancer of the bone is rare, usually the metastasis of other cancers. Most often, this disease affects young persons up to 30 years. For the elderly this type of cancer is not typical. Affects tumor growth of tubular bones of extremities and pelvis, most often juxta-articular region of the bone, e.g. the knee joint with the surrounding bone of the thigh.
Primary tumors of bone and cartilage is represented by several species. These include
- chondrosarcoma (affects the cartilage in the distal parts of the upper and lower extremities)
- osteosarcoma (affects the knee joint and the upper limb is found in a third of cases)
- multiple myeloma (the most common type of bone cancer that develops from myelocytes of bone marrow cells)
- Ewing’s sarcoma (affects the femur and the bones of the pelvic girdle)
- fibrosarcoma with malignant course of the (very rare, affects extremities).
Despite the achievements of modern science, our medicine is at the moment not able to answer the question about the causes of development of tumors of bone and cartilage. There are only assumptions, based on data statistical analysis. For example, the risk of this type of cancer is composed of young smokers. The incidence for primary bone cancers has not changed for many years, or increases slightly. In the case of secondary forms of the situation is somewhat simpler, it all depends on the timely diagnosis and successful treatment of the initial type of the tumor. Since the cancer has already some successes, the incidence of secondary bone cancer is somewhat reduced.
Signs of bone cancer
- pain in the localization of tumor growth. Due to mechanical pressure of the cancerous tissue on nerve fibers the patient often experiences a noticeable local pain, which increases during physical work, exercise, or Vice-versa at night with relaxed muscle
- swelling at the tumor site. Like many other cancers, this type of tumor growth is accompanied by impaired vascular metabolism, which leads to swelling in the area of growth of the tumor. In the case of bone cancer swelling is evident only at a late stage of the disease when the tumor is well developed
- limitation of working capacity of joints. In the case of localization of the tumor in the cartilage is blocking the mobility of the joint parts, resulting in stiffness of movement, lameness, other motor disorders
- deformation of the affected area. If the tumor has also acquired noticeable dimensions and lies not too deep that it becomes clearly visible due to the deformation of epithelial tissues and the affected area as a whole. While epithelial tissues can greatly stretch out, becoming shiny and translucent.
Thus, there is a persistent syndrome that may characterize this disease as bone cancer. Symptoms characteristic of typical novoobrazovaniya processes
- the loss of body weight
- fatigue and pathological fatigue.
Moreover, the tumor area of bone becomes quite brittle, causing frequent pathological fractures with lung injury and effects on bone.
The above symptoms are not strictly specific, but if the pain in certain locations lasts a long time is to seek qualified help and run diagnostics. The final diagnosis can be made only narrow specialist on the basis of x-ray and biopsy of the affected area.
Generally the development of neoplasms can be divided into two stages
- in the first stage of tissue cells still retain some specificity peculiar to a given body, they divide and grow slowly. The possibility of transport of malignant cells through the body is extremely low
- in the second stage of the disease the tumor cells are losing the distinctive features of this tissue type, grow quickly and reproduce at the same time they are very mobile and can move to other organs and systems of the body, causing metastases.
According to a more thorough classification, we can note four stages of bone cancer
- the first stage affected only one bone, while the tumor does not affect its outer shell
- the second stage affects several bones at the same time shells, while the outer wall is reborn in the last instance the tumor is still not beyond the bounds of the authority
- the third stage, the tumor extends beyond the bone, thus begins the transport of cancer cells through the vessels to other localization can be detected in regional lymph nodes
- the fourth stage, the tumor gives a strong metastases in nearby organs, causing secondary focus of tumor. This stage treatment is not subject.
The lethal outcome in case of novoobrazovany bone and cartilage are quite rare kills one out of every five patients. However, it is impossible not to pay attention to careful treatment and monitoring of the development of this disease.
There are several treatment options bone cancer. The most common, relatively simple and reliable method of direct surgical intervention. Although in recent years, medicine in General tries to avoid the use of surgery to treat diseases, this method remains popular. The essence of it is opened the cavity of the localization of cancer and tumour site is completely removed from the body. It is not permitted to leave small areas of tumor growth otherwise, you might relapse. Therefore, if the sprawling of the tumor impossible to remove it entirely without damaging major vessels and nerves that have to amputate the area. Often removed usually the whole bone and it is the function of an implanted metal prosthesis.
For the treatment of various tumors of the widely used methods such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. But unfortunately, tumors consisting of cells of bone and cartilage, is almost insensitive to the influence of powerful drugs or radiation. Thus, the two methods used to treat bone cancer is always in combination and not separately for preoperative preparation. Sometimes it makes sense to slightly reduce the tumor in size for a more successful surgery. In such cases is the appointment of radiation therapy and local administration of powerful chemotherapeutic agents, which prevents the General intoxication of the whole organism.
Powerful combination chemotherapy (including up to three kinds of drugs with different mechanisms of action) is applied in the last stages of the disease to prevent the threat of imminent death, and for elimination of metastases in other systems and organs.
Patients with the fourth stage of bone cancer cannot be completely cured in this case, modern medicine can only alleviate their suffering and to extend life.
The complex of measures aimed at treatment and rehabilitation are also included therapeutic exercise, which allows you to quickly restore motor function of the affected Department. For temporary fixation of the operated on apply elastic bandages, to solve constant problems special metalloprotease. When all outcomes strictly recommended to consulting a doctor, even after the end of the rehabilitation period.
To self-medicate, to apply the methods of traditional medicine in case of any unacceptable tumors many tumors grow quite fast, the delay in this case threatens the life of the patient. So when suspicions arise, and after diagnosis should immediately begin the classic treatment. Only in this case we can speak about the success of the outcome.