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Atrial fibrillation

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Atrial fibrillation

it is a violation of the normal rhythm of the heart characterized by increased frequency of contractions of individual groups of muscle fibers. The frequency of these reductions can be up to 700 beats per minute. In this form of arrhythmia the Atria pump more often than the ventricles, causing the flicker effect.

Atrial fibrillation heart one of the most common heart rhythm disorders in 0.5% of the population has this disease. While it is more common in older men and women.

Types

There are two types of atrial fibrillation atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter.

Flicker or atrial fibrillation is a twitching of the muscular bundles of the Atria, resulting in lost effective contraction of the Atria. There are two forms of atrial fibrillation it’s bradycardic and tahisistolicescie. When a large number of electric impulses in the atrioventricular Union, reaches the ventricles and causes them to shrink, a form of arrhythmia called tahisistolicescie. Rate in this case is unstable and can reach 200 times per minute. In the opposite case, when the ventricles comes less pulses, and the frequency is 60 contractions, the atrial fibrillation it’s bradycardic call.

With atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter atrial is no additive, that is, forcing blood into the ventricles. Therefore, the effective atrial contractions there, and in the phase of diastole, the ventricle fills only the free current blood. In this case, the ventricles do not have time to fill and release blood into the aorta occurs.

Reasons

There are many reasons for the occurrence of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, they are divided into 2 groups residecny and heart. To residecny include chronic lung disease, viral infection, disruption of water and electrolyte balance and alcohol consumption. To heart include congenital heart disease, pericarditis,

lesions of the coronary arteries and other diseases.

Also cause atrial fibrillation can acceptance the use of caffeine or certain medications, emotional stress, stress and excessive exercise. To cause disease can surgery, insufficient or excessive weight, overeating,

.

Symptoms

Symptoms of atrial fibrillation depend on the type of pathology and its shape is permanent, persistent or paroxysmal. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is characterized by its low duration and the ability to unexpected termination. Persistent and chronic atrial brillation on the contrary, lasts more than 7 days and may be recurrent.

Also a very important role is played by the individual characteristics of each patient, the condition of his cardiovascular system overall health. The symptoms of this type of arrhythmia can be indistinct, and people do not immediately feel his attack. But be aware that in the occurrence of this disease disrupted the entire body because of the decrease of the blood output of the heart.

The most visible and striking symptoms of atrial fibrillation are pain and tingling in the chest, increased heart rate, sweating, shortness of breath, physical weakness, frequent urination, dizziness and fainting.

Diagnosis

Usually diagnose atrial fibrillation very easily with palpation. Checking the peripheral pulses, the physician will determine the disordered rhythm and tension. Auscultation of the heart will be heard spasmodic tone and strong fluctuations of its volume. The patient, who identifies the primary symptoms of atrial fibrillation, direct to

.

To accurately determine whether a patient has arrhythmia or not, can help x-ray. If the disease is detected, the patient is prescribed daily monitoring of ECG. While specified forms of atrial fibrillation, duration of pain and their relationship with physical activity.

Treatment

There are several methods of treatment of atrial fibrillation, which should be determined by the doctor depending on the condition of the patient, his clinical picture. Usually initially assigned the patient a pharmaceutical antiarrhythmic drugs. This allows you to slow down the disease and eliminate its symptoms in the early stages.

Also the treatment of atrial fibrillation depends on the form of atrial fibrillation. In the case tahisistolicescie the form is a one-time appointment etazizina and quinidine, as well as some patients can be given phenoptin. If there is a circulatory failure, the applied cardioversion.

At the moment practiced two main methods of treatment of this disease is conservative, the efficiency of which is not more than 15%, and surgery that helps to cure the disease in 7085% of patients.

Conservative methods

For the treatment of atrial fibrillation is prescribed medicine that regulates and slows heart rate. This type of medication reduces the rapid contraction of the ventricles of the heart, while not affecting heart rate.

Also atrial fibrillation, a treatment which is carried out using drugs that require antiplatelet therapy. It includes administration of medicines that reduce the risk of blood clots and, as a consequence,

. To reduce the likelihood of blood clots, patients are prescribed the intake of antiplatelet agents, which are designed to thin the blood. Regular blood tests will help to accurately monitor the actions of medication. It should be remembered that to choose the right antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants (drugs to reduce the risk of blood clots) can only doctor.

Another treatment for atrial fibrillation includes receiving funds, controlling the heart rate. These drugs are able to keep the pulse at 60 beats per minute. These include calcium antagonists, beta-blockers, antiaritmiki and preparations of digitalis. Drugs are appointed taking into account disease-related arrhythmias. At the initial stage of treatment the patient remains under supervision of doctors, so that they could monitor the body’s response and heart rate after taking medications. This method of treatment improves the condition in 3060% of patients, but over time the drugs can stop have a positive impact on the patient. Therefore, doctors often prescribe multiple types of antiarrhythmic drugs.

You should pay special attention to what to prescribe drugs for the treatment of atrial fibrillation should only doctor, as some medicines can cause a sudden arrhythmia.

Surgery

Surgery is used only if conservative methods prove useless. There are two types of surgical treatment, catheter ablation and implantation of pacemaker.

The method of catheter ablation is to neutralize cells of the heart muscle causing arrhythmia. During the operation, the doctor opens the fused fibers, which break the conductive ability and cause atrial fibrillation. The minimally invasive ablation technique where the doctor is not required to do open-heart surgery. Through special incisions with the help of the catheter reaches the heart. Depending on the type of catheter operation can take place using a laser, cold, chemical or electrical impulse.

When using the method of implantation of a pacemaker under the skin near the clavicle the patient is implanted with a special device. The pacemaker has a small size and is used to align rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation. The device is connected to the electrode, which is discharged into the cavity of the heart through the subclavian vein. The pacemaker emits pulses that cause heart muscle to contract at a certain frequency. The trauma to the patient’s body for a minimum of implantation a small incision of the skin, which affects the ribs.