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  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment

Rabbit fever, tomopterna or rat disease, small plague synonyms of tularemia. The causative agent of tularemia Francisella tularensis, which can enter the human body in various ways through the respiratory passages, skin, gastrointestinal tract or through mucous membranes of the eyes.


usually accompanied by involvement of lymph nodes, fever, weakness and General malaise.

If the pathogen entered the body through the skin, in the place formed a skin ulcer at ingress on tonsils sore throat in the introduction of the lungs, pneumonia, eye conjunctivitis. By far the virus enters the lymph nodes and, thus, wasalaam them. Lymph node called a bubo. Sometimes the pathogen can penetrate into the blood, which leads to secondary lesions in other organs (spleen, lungs, liver).


There are specific forms of tularemia

  • bubonic. Characterized in that the agent penetrates the skin, in the end, after a few days there defeat inguinal, axillary, and femoral lymph nodes. The lymph nodes are not painful, but have a clear enhanced contours, about 5 inches. After a few months noticed the softening of the affected site or may be spontaneous autopsy, accompanied by pus
  • angina bubonic. Infection occurs through food by drinking contaminated water or poorly processed meat. Is accompanied by characteristic symptoms of increased cervical and podelochnye nodes symptoms sore throat (redness and swelling of the tonsils, and then slow-healing ulcers). This form is also called tularemia angina, the duration of which the order of 824 days
  • -bubonic. Arises because of hit on mucous eyes of the pathogen, with symptoms of swelling of the eyelids, excessive lacrimation, impaired visual acuity, there is a purulent discharge from the eyes and yellowish-white bubbles on the shell of the lower eyelid
  • abdominal or gastrointestinal. Appears usually when ingested food contaminated foods or drinking. This form is accompanied by vomiting, bloating, nausea, the tongue may have a white coating, the temperature increase observed, it is also possible enlargement of the spleen or liver, infection of the lymph nodes and their dissemination in the abdominal cavity, diarrhea or delay
  • pulmonary. Develops when the pathogen enters the body with contaminated dust. Can manifest itself in two variants inflammation of the bronchi and pneumonia. Accompanied by cough, weakness, fever and other
  • generalized. Is accompanied by characteristic symptoms of the infection headache, and muscle pain, severe weakness and feeling of weakness, sometimes, loss of consciousness, delirium.


As the name of the disease is still a synonym for murine disease, then, consequently, the vectors are rodents (hamsters, water rats, field mice, muskrats) or hares. Also this disease can become infected pigs, sheep or cattle between the pathogen is often transmitted via mosquito, flares, and similar insects.

People can become infected in several ways

  • alimentary the causative agent enters the body through polluted water or raw foods (abdominal, angina bubonic tularemia)
  • contact, if had contact with rodents or contaminated with water (eye-bubonic tularemia)
  • the aerosol when the inhalation of contaminated dust from hay, straw, grain grinding (pulmonary tularemia)
  • vector-borne insect bites (or bubonic eye-bubonic tularemia).

Naturally, the disease tularemia is most often found in rural areas or in people who have direct contact with rodents.


When the disease tularemia, symptoms may have different manifestations that depend on where it begins to develop infection. The most characteristic symptoms are

  • chills
  • loss of appetite
  • high body temperature around 38 degrees
  • muscle pain, especially concentrated in the lower back or calf
  • headache
  • weakness
  • excessive sweating
  • the emergence of nasal bleeding
  • the pressure reduction and the violation pulse
  • the face may be swollen with a bluish tint
  • possible insomnia or drowsiness
  • bleeding point type on oral mucosa
  • the skin can be rash in the form of soft formations, towering above the skin, but empty inside.

The latent period varies from several hours to three weeks, usually 37 days.


To establish the diagnosis of the disease, it is necessary to conduct laboratory research. Diagnosis of tularemia includes

  • immunofluorescently method for the detection of Francisella ularensis and antibodies to them
  • the agglutination detects the antigens of the pathogen
  • biological method helps to detect tularemia bacteria in different test materials. That is, take the scrapings from sores, blood or discharge of the conjunctiva. Usually the study material specially administered to experimental animals that result from infection die after 414 days. And the remnants of the spleen, lymph node, liver is used for removing the yolk of the environment to determine the causative agent
  • Allergy test carried them, if it is necessary to identify early diagnosis of the disease. With this purpose, impose a special tulyareminaya killed bacteria intradermally or on the skin. The results of the shoot in a few hours, 24, 36, 48. If this results in swelling or redness, the amount of which is not less than 5 mm, it indicates positive result. At the same time, it is worth considering that people who recover from tularemia, can have such positive samples in a few years.

If necessary, to pass additional advice from the ophthalmologist, infectious disease, pulmology, epidemiologist.


For the treatment of tularemia, as a rule, antibiotics. Can also be a combination therapy combining vaccine therapy (vaccination against tularemia) and antibiotic therapy. The therapeutic vaccine is administered at intervals of a certain period of time with intervals of 3 to 6 days. The treatment may be on the order of 610 injections.

Depending on the manifestations of the disease and its forms, symptomatic therapy. For example, if there is presence of skin ulcers, then use the packs, heat treatments or ointment dressings. When there is a lot of suppuration, it may be performed surgery to cleanse of purulent cavities. Treatment of inflammation of the eye (conjunctivitis) is carried out using special ointments or drops.

The consequences

Complications and consequences are of different nature depending on the stage of the disease.

When abdominal form morbid process may spread into the abdominal space and to develop

. With eye-bubonic form can take place


eyelid, dacryocystitis, perforation of the cornea and so on.

It is also found and the development of infectious-toxic shock is a condition is due to exposure to toxins of the pathogen and may lead to coma.

Sometimes there is and

(inflammation of joints),

(loss of sheath in the brain), pulmonary abscess or gangrene of the lungs, etc.


Prevention of tularemia is important, it is not necessary to start and to push into the background, so primary among them in this disease are

  • active rodent control
  • use protecting gloves when handling dead animals and disinfection of
  • if the area of the outbreak, then use only boiled or purified water, to carry out various methods of water disinfection
  • during laying hay or obnalichivanii bread you must wear protective masks
  • those who belong to the risk group, can get vaccinated, which is carried out according to epidemiological indicators
  • when there is a threat of the bite of an infected insect, you will need to use protective clothing
  • In order not to be infected murine disease also is time to treat the wounds, as through the skin pathogen Francisella ularensis can easily penetrate into the body.