The Disease Itsenko-Kushinga
is a complex neuroendocrine disease caused by the violation of regulatory mechanisms for control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, and is expressed by the excess of adrenal hormones (corticosteroids).
Physician neurologist, start with those Nicholas in 1924 for the first time described the signs of an unknown sickness, and then he admitted that the causes of this disease are changes in the hypothalamus – the area of the brain responsible for the correct interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems of the human body. A little later, in 1932, the neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing appearance of the disease associated with the appearance of pituitary tumors. Modern scientists analyzing this affliction, agreed that the syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga is the result of disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, which proves the correctness of both researchers, resulting in the disease has received a double name.
Dokliniceski to pokazatelyami from the disease, the syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga impossible. Find it in malignant or benign tumors of various organs adrenals, bronchi, liver, pancreas, and thymus.
Current medicine until now unknown causes of the syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga, but the observed statistics of occurrence of the disease after infectious brain lesions, trauma, poisoning (intoxication) of the organism. Women affected by this syndrome often after childbirth. The disease may also appear in the period of perestroika in the body – puberty or menopause. The main reason is considered to be a tumor, which is found in 85% of patients with syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga. This neoplasm is formed from chromophobic and basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary. This is a rather rare disease, more common in women 25-40 years.
There is a ailment as a result of failure of the mechanism of the relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. Entering the hypothalamus, nerve impulses provoke his cells to identify a lot of substances that activates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), causing adrenal glands to produce excess corticosteroids, excess of which violates all of the metabolic processes in the human body.
The syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga has diverse symptoms affecting all body systems
- the skin becomes dry; in region of hips, buttocks, abdomen, mammary glands appear stripes, from red to blue-violet shades. Blood vessels become brittle and sensitive to the slightest damage, because of the thinning of the skin visible blood vessels. Women grow hair on the face, chest and stomach (hirsutism). The face and body, both men and women covered with hair, while on his head they, on the contrary, fall
- obesity occurs in 95 % of patients. Weight distribution is uneven, usually fat deposits appear on the stomach, back, shoulders and face and arms and legs are thin
- the skeletal system is destroyed, which leads to osteoporosis, loss of bone strength, in children delayed growth, and in adults it is reduced by 10-20 centimetres
- the muscular system is so weakened that the person cannot stand without support
- cardiovascular system one of the first to react to the disease, manifesting itself in high blood pressure can lead to heart failure and even death
the respiratory system due to the reduction of immunity, the body vulnerable to all infections, which develop various diseases
- digestive system a heartburn, ulcer of the stomach ceases to perform its functions the liver
- reproductive and endocrine system as a result of disorders of the endocrine system is developing diabetes, patients reduced libido, most patients no period getting pregnant is almost impossible, and in those cases, when this happens, the pregnancy ends in miscarriage, the syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga in children leads to the stop of puberty
nervous system disorders are manifested by high emotion or indifference
the deterioration of memory and intellect, thoughts of suicide.
Upon detection of symptoms of Cushing’s are diagnosed by a doctor-endocrinologist
- the analysis of urine and blood for hormones (corticosteroids and ACTH)
- determines the size of the pituitary gland with the use of radiography of the skull and the Sella
is magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, and x-rays of bones to detect pathological fractures, and
Treatment of the syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga has two kinds
- etiopathogenetic, which eliminates the cause of the disease and restores normal operation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Treatment is medical, surgical and radiation methods. Depending on the symptoms and severity of these methods can be applied individually or in combination
- symptomatic treatment, which restores all of the affected organs.
Drug treatment involves taking medications that block the excessive production of corticosteroids and ACTH. Surgical treatment involves resection of the pituitary tumor, for example, by using low temperature using liquid nitrogen (cryosurgery).
Radiation therapy helps to slow down the activity of the pituitary gland. Together with a decrease in the level of hormones is a comprehensive treatment of damaged organs, prescribers for their recovery (for example, to lower blood pressure, strengthen the immune system or treatment of osteoporosis).
Because each case is specific, requires an individual approach to each patient, different treatment methods and medications that can identify endocrinologist.