disease acute infectious character with a contact mode of transmission of pathogenic organisms. The causative agent of tetanus enters the human body via any skin injury, for example, wounds or burns.
Tetanus bacteria, which provokes the development of diseases emit toxic substances large impact forces. The result of the impact of these toxins is a strong contraction of the muscles at the site of infection, is also observed the destruction of blood cells, cells in the affected area of infection die. All the signs of tetanus are directly connected with allocated stabnikova coli toxins. A characteristic feature of tetanus is the defeat of the human nervous system, the main manifestations of persistent pronounced as muscle tension, the occurrence of General convulsions.
The main symptoms of tetanus
During the initial period of the development of the disease symptomatic picture the following
- the appearance of a dull pulling pain at the site of infection
- the stress state of the muscles of mastication purposes, which is accompanied by a spasmodic contraction of these muscles
- tension of facial muscles, which leads to the appearance of specific facial expressions, for example, sardonic smile, narrowed eyes, wrinkled forehead
- convulsive spasms of the muscles of the pharynx, making it difficult to swallow and cause soreness when swallowing.
The height of the infectious process characterized by the following clinical manifestations of tetanus
- the stress state of the muscles of the trunk and extremities excluding the hands and feet of man
- muscles tend to relax both during wakefulness and during sleep
- the hardening of the muscles of the abdominal region, limited mobility of the legs
- the appearance of a surface rapid breathing
- difficult process of bowel movement due to muscle tension in the crotch area
- the appearance of specific body position of the patient in the course of tetanus in severe or complicated form, manifested in the form of upturned heads during his stay at the back, the lumbar region is raised above the bed at a distance of hand (a manifestation called opisthotonus
- degraded the process of excretion of urine and feces
- the occurrence of seizures of varying frequency. The duration of seizures can be several minutes in the usual form of the disease. Severe form characterized by seizures up to several tens of minutes
- fever, accompanied by profuse perspiration or saliva, the processes of heartbeat and breathing become more frequent
- the development of insomnia on the background of constant muscle tension in the body
- an increased level of irritability
- the lack of breathing capabilities.
The incubation period of the disease is 1-2 weeks on average, and in some cases reaches several months.
The severity of tetanus enables you to divide the disease into three forms
- mild form is characterized by increased body temperature, the appearance of a sardonic smile, the manifestation of the symptomatic pattern occurs for 5-6 days after infection
- moderate tetanus the period of display of signs does not exceed 3-4 days, the occurrence of seizures several times a day, moderate or high body temperature of the patient
- severe form of the disease the symptoms and signs of tetanus in not more than 1-2 days, symptoms indicating difficulty swallowing, breathing, pronounced facial disorders, frequency of seizures reaches a rate of several per hour, an elevated level of body temperature of the patient, expressed by the processes of sweating and saliva
- a very severe form of the flow is significantly accelerated development of signs of disease, frequency of seizures is very high (every 3-5 minutes), high temperature, respiratory rate, bluish color of the skin of the patient, the risk of stopping breathing.
After a tetanus shot people as a result of infection stabnikova wand can obtain the local form of the disease, which occurs with milder clinical manifestations of the disease, however, can go in the form of General tetanus.
Treatment and prevention of tetanus
Measures to cure tetanus used in the neurosurgical Department. In the first place, opened the wound, through which the process of infection, followed by the process of removal of tissues that die, dirt, foreign bodies Is the entry of tetanus toxoid directly around the wound, then intramuscularly. These actions are aimed at weakening the influence of the toxins of the pathogen in the patient’s blood. The use of anticonvulsants allows doctors to remove muscle twitching. Measures are being taken to restore respiratory function of the patient recovered heartbeat. In some cases, a course of antibiotics, helping to prevent inflammatory processes that occur as complications of the disease.
Vaccination against tetanus is the primary preventive measure against tetanus. However, it is worth considering that there may be side effects due to the composition a tetanus shot. For this reason, specialists in the grafting of this disease can change the combination of elements that make up the vaccine. Also, the replacement of a component is performed when re-vaccination against tetanus. It must be remembered that tetanus shot does not provide full protection against infection, whereby it becomes possible re-infection stabnikova sticks. Perhaps grafting on an emergency basis, which is carried out at occurrence of a potentially dangerous infection of the injuries, although mostly carried out a planned procedure of grafting in order to get the body identified substances, which can be the most effective against the action of toxins of the causative agent of tetanus.