this is an infectious disease of periodontal tissues (that surround and hold the teeth), which is characterized by progressive destruction of the structure supporting apparatus of the tooth. After the infection gets between the tooth and gum, plaque, and after a certain period of Tartar, growing into the gums. Because of this, periodontal pockets bacteria multiply, which causes the destruction of the ligaments of the tooth root with the bone. If you do not deal with this problem, the bone destruction of periodontitis, after which the chances of losing teeth.
Moreover, infection, spreading the organism causes the following diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, infective endocarditis, gastritis, atherosclerosis, enterocolitis.
Chronic periodontitis is quite common, being the second most common disease of the dentition (after decay).
There are the following stage (extent) of periodontitis
the nature of the inflammatory process
according to the severity of the inflammatory process
- the average degree
- heavy degree.
in the spread of the inflammatory focus
At the initial stage of periodontal disease symptoms such as weakness of the tooth ligaments and bleeding gums. Until this happens, the process is reversible. But if the disease is active, and no treatment, due to the rapid destruction of the dental alveolar bone cells (part of the jaw bearing the teeth) start to fall out healthy teeth.
During exacerbation of periodontal disease are observed more heterogeneous the symptoms bad breath, inflammation of the gums, abnormal tooth mobility, fever, purulent discharge from periodontal pockets, the misalignment of teeth. Also on the gums may develop fistulae and abscesses, often there is an increase in the submandibular lymph nodes.
The disease may be burdened by various complications, most often, a periodontal abscess (an abscess). This happens in deep bone pockets, which are hard to display the contents, so they accumulate microorganisms, causing inflammation of the gums. However, when the inflammation ceases, the abscess breaks through the fistula or into the entrance slit of the pocket, but there is a possibility and repeated abscesses (for example, if the fistula closes very quickly).
Moreover, periodontitis can occur chronically, with frequent exacerbations, which is usually accompanied by microbial Allergy.
Causes of periodontitis the teeth can be General (systematic) and local. Common causes diabetes, blood disease, immune deficiencies and other diseases with periodontal syndrome. Besides, there are a large number of chronic diseases, which do not affect the periodontium, but lead to or worsen the course of periodontitis.
Local causes of action of pathogenic microorganisms that accumulate in Tartar and plaque, tooth decay, tooth trauma, impaired oral hygiene.
Periodontitis can also occur after the disease of the mouth (e.g. gingivitis). Most often the disease begins to develop in people aged 30-40 years.
To detect periodontitis at an early stage need to undergo a thorough examination that includes examination of the expert, gathering information, probing the depth of periodontal pockets and x-rays.
The treatment of periodontitis individually and depends on the General health condition, stage of disease and the nature of its complications. Treatment can be non-surgical and surgical so, in the early stages of periodontitis is carried out, the removal of calculus (ultrasound or mechanical), polishing of tooth surface and machining of the tooth enamel professional brushes with a protective varnish containing fluoride.
Basically, the patient needs surgical treatment for example, if the depth of periodontal pockets more than 6 mm, in this case, the doctor performs a patchwork operation, during which remove the top flap of the gums to clean the pockets, and then stitched back.
In addition, the patient must take antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents and stimulators of immunity, which the doctor selects, based on laboratory studies.
In order to protect yourself from the occurrence of periodontitis, it is necessary to monitor the hygiene of the oral cavity in time to remove dental plaque and to fill teeth. It is desirable to increase the amount of plant foods in the diet, chew your food slowly, so that the teeth are evenly involved in chewing (removed plaque).