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Pericarditis

  1. Symptoms
  2. Reasons
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Pericarditis

a group of diseases that include inflammation of pericard. The pericardium is the membrane that covers the heart on the outside.

Symptoms

The main symptom that occurs when pericarditis is chest pain. They have the following features

  • begin suddenly, then gradually pass
  • permanent, can last for hours and days, can be intense or mild
  • mostly monotonous, the pain can be both acute and stupid, oppressive or it can be a burning sensation
  • occur mainly in the region of the heart, but can go on hands and left shoulder
  • pain decreases when a person sits or leans forward and increases when lying on the back, if there are any movements.

Also for pericarditis is characterized by such symptoms as weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, increased body temperature. In chronic pericarditis the symptoms are not so bright, sometimes absent.

Pericarditis chronic form is manifested by such symptoms

  • pressure, a feeling of heaviness in the heart area
  • the presence of shortness of breath during exercise or elevated physical exercise
  • swelling of the legs
  • weakness in the body, increase fatigue.

Form

Due to the occurrence of isolated aseptic, infectious and idiopathic pericarditis. Infectious pericarditis caused by any infection or virus that result in inflammation pericard.

They are divided into several forms

  • rheumatic (the causative agent of the disease is the microorganism that causes rheumatic pain)
  • bacterial (the causative agent may be different bacteria that are the causative agents of other diseases)
  • tuberculosis (occurs in this form of pericarditis during complications of the disease

    )

  • protozoa (the causative agent is protozoa)
  • fungal (pathogen are fungi)
  • viral (occurs when complications arise during viral infections).

Aseptic pericarditis is an inflammation of pericard in which the causative agent is infection.

There are several types of

  • allergic (directly connected to

    a person)

  • arising due to the presence of diseases of the blood (

    , thrombocytopathy)

  • due to connective tissue diseases
  • associated with the presence of tumors (including malignant)
  • traumatic pericarditis (due to injury of the heart)
  • radiation (caused by radiation)
  • post-infarction (associated with a history of heart attack)
  • associated with metabolic disorders
  • with a long reception of some medicinal preparations.

Idiopathic pericarditis is an inflammation of the membrane that covers the heart on the outside, which occurs without apparent reason.

If we take into account the clinical manifestations of the disease, it is possible to allocate such forms of pericarditis, as

  • acute pericarditis (the duration of the disease up to 6 weeks)
  • dry pericarditis (in this form of the disease between layers of pericardial adhesions are formed, which do not allow the heart to function normally)
  • exudative pericarditis (in this form of effusion in the cavity of the SAC (pericardium) begins to accumulate fluid)
  • pericarditis with cardiac tamponade (in this form the bag is formed so fluid that the heart can’t pump blood)
  • no pericardial tamponade
  • subacute (illness lasts from 6 weeks to six months)
  • chronic (illness lasts more than six months)
  • chronic pericardial effusion (accumulation of fluid)
  • chronic constrictive (with the thicker layer of pericardia)
  • chronic exudative-constrictive
  • chronic adhesive (when pericard layers glued together)
  • armored heart.

Reasons

In General, pericarditis is a consequence of the transfer of other diseases. Diseases which may occur with pericarditis, a variety from infectious to conventional injury. When the cause of pericarditis cannot be determined, it is possible to speak of idiopathic pericarditis. But mostly, the cause is viral diseases that it was impossible to define time, or research methods that were used.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of pericarditis heart is set on the basis of the following studies

  • analysis of complaints patient (pain or burning sensation in the heart or chest, shortness of breath, frequent fatigue, fever)
  • analysis of the disease (how long have symptoms and complaints, whether of viral and infectious diseases, when did the malaise, changes in symptoms over time)
  • analysis of life (which was the disease and the operation, whether there are any injuries, the presence of harmful habits)
  • analysis of the family (transferred to the relative operation or illness associated with the heart)
  • examination of the patient (skin color, listening to the tapping of the heart, urine and blood)
  • tests immunological tests (it is necessary to determine whether there are antibodies or proteins markers damaged tissues of the body immunity)
  • ECG
  • Ultrasound of the heart (in this analysis, we can detect whether there is accumulation of fluid in the body, or you can see the spikes that occur on the pericardium at the time of disease progression, it is possible to determine irregularities in the functioning of the heart)
  • chest x-ray (radiograph can determine the change of borders of the heart)
  • additional methods of examination (catheterization, angiography)
  • the results of puncture (puncture of the chest)
  • a consultation with a therapist.

Treatment

To cure pericarditis, it is necessary first to identify what disease caused him to take for his treatment. Directly to cure inflammation of the pericardium, necessary

  • to conduct the restorative procedure (you need to eat fruits, vitamins, drugs that improve metabolism)
  • you need to take drugs that enhance the immune system (immunomodulators)
  • drugs (to treat diseases, prescribe non-hormonal and hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs and conventional drugs that improve heart function)
  • appoint to receive antibiotics (if the cause of the disease is the presence of infection in the body)
  • surgical treatment (performed only in the case, if adhesions pronounced, when the accumulation in the pericardium of large amounts of fluid if the regular treatment with medications does not give any result).

Complications

Mainly pericarditis, if it is time to identify and treat, takes place without the occurrence of any complications or consequences. The only consequence is a slight decrease in physical activity. But if the disease is not detected early or is it already turned into a severe form, there may be a number of consequences and complications

  • when acute pericarditis occurs cardiac tamponade. It interferes with the normal pumping of blood in the human body, when not treated it can lead to heart failure
  • stone heart, characterized by the formation of large amounts of calcium in the region of the pericardium and leads to the formation of the shell around the heart and thus interferes with the normal functioning of the heart
  • develops

    (this is the condition of the body when the heart cannot properly cope with their functions). This leads to disruption of blood supply to all vessels, organisms and tissues.

Prevention

A certain prevention of pericarditis not, but to prevent this disease is recommended

  • timely cure all diseases, especially to pay attention to infectious
  • to prevent injuries to the chest
  • at the onset of symptoms of the disease should immediately consult a doctor and not to delay.

Pericarditis rarely appears as an independent disease, mainly it is a complication of other diseases. Inflammatory processes in this disease can be caused by various reasons, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and autoimmune lose own tissues, as well as the presence of tumors and various injuries of the chest.

Inflammation of the pericardium is accompanied by the accumulation of fluid in it or the formation of adhesions that prevent normal heart function.