is an acute viral disease that primarily affects lymphoid tissue. Bodies which affects the mononucleosis of the liver, spleen, all lymph nodes, tonsils. The disease has other names monocytic angina, glandular fever, the disease of recruits, a disease Filatov’s, kissing disease, Epstein-Barr virus infection, Pfeifer disease, EBV infection. The disease is manifested by high body temperature, enlargement of the spleen, liver, lesions of the tonsils. Cause of infection is getting the virus from the group of herpes viruses, called virus Epstein-Barr. Feature of this virus is the damage of b-lymphocytes (immune system cells), which is the reason for the change in impostership bodies.
After people have been ill with infectious mononucleosis, recurrent disease does not happen because of the development of strong immunity to the virus Epstein-Barr. This is usually a single infection.
At the beginning of the infection mononucleosis manifests itself as usual catarrhal disease. The patient has
- weakness throughout the body
- slight fever
- a light cold.
When the virus spreads throughout the body, begin to manifest the following symptoms of infectious mononucleosis
- a strong increase in temperature and prolonged fever
- swollen lymph nodes, which may last up to one month
- tonsillitis (inflammation of tonsils), which leads to difficulty breathing through the nose and swallowing
- pain in the throat.
In the recovery period pain symptoms disappear, the body temperature normalizerbase, liver, spleen and lymph nodes are normal size, improves the General health of the patient. The duration of the recovery is two to four weeks.
Mononucleosis is typical and atypical forms. The typical form is with pronounced symptoms of infectious mononucleosis. During the atypical form of the disease symptoms may not be or are not typical manifestations
- mainly affects internal organs, leading to their increase
- minor symptoms, which quickly passes
- asymptomatic form in which man is only a carrier of the infection and at the same time does not suffer from the virus (determined only through tests).
Also klassificeret infectious mononucleosis by severity (mild, moderate and severe) and course of the disease (acute, complicated, chronic and prolonged).
Mononucleosis in children under two years of age is rare. Most common in children from three years and adults up to forty. The detection of mononucleosis in kindergarten or school quarantine is optional. Quality enough to conduct daily wet cleaning.
The main cause of mononucleosis the disease becomes infected person (sick or carrier). Since the virus is transmitted airborne and contact-household way to protect yourself is only possible if knowledge about the disease of another person. A high probability of Contracting the disease in people with a weakened immune system. The peaks of the spread of mononucleosis occur in the spring and autumn period of the year.
Mono is diagnosed through General examination of the patient and comparison of symptoms. Necessarily in this case, it is assigned a laboratory blood test (checking for the presence of specific cells, mononuclear cells). Also conducted laboratory tests for the presence of antibodies with the ELISA and the DNA of the pathogen. Often prescribe a consultation with an infectious disease doctor.
When the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis treatment is carried out at home. Admission offer mainly to children and people with acute disease. During high temperature and fever patients prescribed bed rest. In the case of a strong increase of the liver and signs of jaundice, you need to follow a diet 5 in which you want to exclude all fried, smoked and fatty meals, limit the spices and salt consumption. In all cases, be sure to copious consumption of water.
For the relief of pain in the throat, rinse your mouth with antiseptic medications that are prescribed by a doctor. Also physician prescribed antiviral, anti-Allergy and antipyretic drugs. To maintain the body’s prescribe the intake of vitamin complexes. In case of complications Antibacterials. In severe disease and in cases of threat of complications can be prescribed short courses of hormonal therapy.
Immunocompromised patients may develop chronic infectious mononucleosis. Failure to comply with treatment or delay seeking professional medical help may have complications such as splenic rupture, pneumonia, inhibition of hematopoiesis, suffocation due to increase in nasopharyngeal tonsils part, tonsillitis, meningitis.
Virus infectious mononucleosis has oncogenic activity. This means that after mononucleosis may develop more serious illnesses. Therefore, you should periodically undergo a laboratory blood test to detect possible deviations and their timely removal. If suddenly after an illness in the analysis are atypical mononuclear cells, prescribe mandatory advice from a physician hematologist.
For the prevention of infectious mononucleosis special events will not occur, as it is transmitted by airborne droplets and many virtually asymptomatic.
In order to reduce the risk of disease, you need
- a rational and balanced food with the exception of fried, fatty, smoked or minimal consumption of such food
- promptly treat chronic infection and support the immune system
- avoid direct contact with infected people.