one of the most dangerous acute infectious diseases. Anthrax occurs in animals, plants and humans. The development of the disease occurs within the incubation period which lasts from a few hours to two weeks after infection in the organism.
In medical practice there are two forms of the Siberian ulcer General skin.
General (also called generalized) form is manifested in three different types
- the pulmonary form of anthrax affects primarily the respiratory system. There are symptoms characteristic of severe forms of pneumonia, difficulty in breathing, cardiovascular failure. Due to the narrowing of the blood vessels of the lungs there is shortness of breath, significantly reduced blood pressure, body temperature, on the contrary, increases rapidly develops wet cough, abundant sputum expectorated with blood. Treatment prognosis is often unfavorable
- intestinal anthrax is different from other types of this disease of particular severity. In addition to the General symptoms, such as dizziness, severe headache and sore throat, high fever, vomiting and loose stools mixed with blood, strong cutting pains in the abdomen. There is the appearance of the cyanotic tint of the skin, breaks the small capillaries of the eyeballs. When the intestinal form of the disease has the highest percentage of deaths, despite the use of qualified and timely treatment
- septic subspecies of the Siberian ulcer is not always an independent disease, sometimes it occurs as a complication of one of the first two types. A large concentration of bacilli in the blood quite rapidly spreads throughout the body, causing suppression of General immunity. When the body temperature is kept very high, there are multiple bleeding of internal organs and severe pain without clear localization. Further development leads to the development of secondaryand death.
If anthrax is manifested in the cutaneous form, it is possible the progression of one of the three varieties of this form
- the cystic variety (less common name bullous) is manifested by the appearance of the skin many individual bubbles quickly increase in size, then there is a rupture of the bladder. The merger of several open bubbles forms an ulcer, which over time appear black scabs
- carunculata expressed a kind of skin inflammation, undergoing several stages of development of redness, nodule formation, ulcerations, with a dark base. Against the background of these processes the body temperature rises, causes marked pain, General weakness of the body
- edematous (edematosa) kind starts with a General severe swelling of the skin, then, like the first two varieties, appear sores with scabs.
In addition to specific manifestations of various forms of the disease, we can identify General symptoms of anthrax. The main symptoms common to many infectious diseases high body temperature, headache, chills, decreased activity, weakness throughout the body, which adds bursting severe pain in the lower back.
In the place of infection in the body there is lose skin, which at first looks like a small (several millimeters) redness, then turns into a convex knot purple hue that is accompanied by growing itching and burning. For hours the nodule increases in size, there arises a cavity filled with bloody fluid. Such bubbles burst, forming a concave ulcer, in which begin to develop secondary nodules followed the same development. Thus, the defeat of the skin is a larger areas of skin and leaves the deeper layers of the dermis. This process takes up to several days, and then at the bottom of a large ulcer formed black crust, called an eschar, at the edges of the ulcer there is redness and extensive swelling.
With a favorable course of the disease about a week high body temperature starts to decline rapidly, the ulcer gradually begins to scar. This process usually ends in three weeks, to affected areas of the skin remain major scars.
Infection occurs when the anthrax spores are in direct contact with the skin. Anthrax enters the body through microtrauma of the skin and mucous membranes.
The most frequent cases of disease by contact with sick animals, cutting meat, dressing skins, cooking the infected meat. If processed products remained viable bacilli, the use of such products are also potentially dangerous.
Infection through the respiratory tract or through food is possible, in most cases, laboratories in the testing of biological weapons.
Disputes as long stored on paper and fabric, so marked a rare intrusion of workers in the cloth – and paper mills businesses.
Diagnosis of anthrax is made by first taking a history and examining a patient. It turns out the possibility of contact with infected animals and the presence of similar cases in this particular area, analyses the list of symptoms of the patient, the procedure and the rate of their occurrence.
On examination, the patient special attention is paid to the condition of his skin, the presence of characteristic lesions and inflammatory processes, are taken into account even slight reddening of the skin. In addition, tapped the light and heartbeat, palpable internal organs.
Then in a specialized laboratory is carried out a biological test on animals to confirm or refute infection that is anthrax. In parallel for the same purpose, carried out PCR analysis of blood, where insights about the nature of the pathogen based on the level of specific antibodies.
To effectively combat the disease are widely used penicillin group of antibiotics, as an alternative, you can apply some drugs generation fluoroquinolone group. Is held detoxification therapy and sterile treatment of the skin, including the imposition of sterile bandages.
The remaining measures are used symptomatically, with the exception of surgery, which is contraindicated with any form of anthrax to prevent the spread of infection.
Treatment of anthrax is carried out exclusively in the infectious diseases hospital under the supervision of a qualified physician.
Prevention of anthrax is presented of interventions for inspection, detection and elimination of infected animals, strict accounting of the occurrence of outbreaks and sporadic cases of infection. For people whose occupation is fraught with the danger of infection, there is a vaccine against anthrax.
In the case of recovery, patients develop a strong specific immunity, so cases of re-infection were not observed.