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Anaphylactic shock

  1. Symptoms
  2. Reasons
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Anaphylactic shock (Anaphylaxis)

refers to dangerous situations that occur in human life, which directly threaten human life. Anaphylactic shock is expressed in increased sensitivity to the allergen or allergic reaction.

Anaphylaxis often develops as a result of repeated contact with the allergen. For example, if there is sensitivity to the venom or saliva of bees, that first bite can pass without consequences, and further capable of developing an anaphylactic reaction, which can manifest as half an hour and 12 hours.

Symptoms

The symptoms of anaphylactic shock

  • headache accompanied by redness and swelling of the skin after insect bites
  • frequent wheezing
  • itchy skin across the surface of a generalized nature
  • loss of consciousness
  • abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
  • pale skin, later becomes bluish color
  • difficult breathing due to swelling of the larynx and a sharp narrowing of the bronchi
  • the decrease in blood pressure.

If the patient is conscious, he may complain of swelling and redness of the skin swelling, pain as well itching all over the skin surface. In any case, the necessary first aid in anaphylactic shock.

Can also be drug anaphylactic shock due to the introduction of a specific drug or taking drugs. Often in this area can occur in anaphylactic shock in dentistry in the treatment of teeth through the pain.

You need to be careful when anaphylactic shock in children, as this reaction can give serious complications for the child’s body.

Anaphylactic shock can carry hereditary, so if there are similar allergic reactions from relatives, you should be careful when eating certain food allergens or drugs.

Reasons

Typically, this condition occurs because of the release of substances that cause inflammation, particularly of the immune system cells (mast cells, basophils). In particular, this substance may be the histamine he takes part in the inflammatory process of allergic origin. It is a chemical substance capable of activating receptors engaged in the activity of allergic inflammation. Due to the activation of these receptors occurs characteristic itchy skin, difficult breathing, watery discharge from the nose, headaches, abdominal pain, loss of consciousness. Also histamine can disrupt blood flow is a consequence pale skin and cyanosis further, coating of cold sweat.

During this reaction, observed elevated levels of immunoglobulins, substances that are produced by the immune system to protect the whole organism.

To increase histamine there are several types of substances drugs, hormonal preparations, serums, toxins, vaccines.

Among the drugs isolated

  • aminoglycosides funds from bacteria, which are used for severe infections
  • penicillin antibiotics a number of antibiotics produced from fungi Penicillum
  • sulfonamide group of antimicrobials
  • nitrofurans antimicrobials are often used to restore the functions of the gastrointestinal tract or urogenital system
  • tetracyclines antimicrobial drugs used in diseases of the bronchopulmonary system.

Hormonal drugs to increase histamine

  • ACTH hormone produced by the pituitary gland to regulate hormones in the adrenal cortex
  • insulin refers to a number of pancreatic hormones, prescribed to patients

  • parathyroid hormone participates in the metabolism of calcium in the body.

In calculating the average of the substances that can cause an allergic reaction, there are about three thousand, and it is only average.

Diagnosis

If serious symptoms need to see a doctor, which will analyze the color of the skin, rashes, and the condition of the mucous membranes, presence of swelling or redness of the skin. People in this state can be braked or be anxious, inadequate.

Need to donate blood for the identification of immunoglobulins of class E, which are responsible for allergic reactions. This is carried out to identify potentially hazardous substance that causes the allergic process in the body of the person.

If people can’t understand what a reaction, it is possible to have Allergy skin testing, which should be done in advance before the appearance of the disease.

Produce a common analysis of blood for detection of eosinophils, cells that are involved in the development of allergic manifestations.

When a person is in serious condition, rationally diagnose all vital functions, in particular, to measure blood pressure and record the electrocardiogram (ECG).

Treatment

Under this condition, it is important to identify the allergen to which the organism is extremely sensitive in the future should be the correct therapy of anaphylactic shock.

But the main treatment of anaphylactic shock is through the use of certain drugs that stop the allergic reaction. Before that you need to avoid contact of the allergen with the patient, to avoid further serious complications.

So you can apply medications like

  • glucorticosteroids can be introduced into the body in several ways, orally, intravenously, intramuscularly. Reduce the manifestation of anaphylactic shock, as they reduce symptoms of allergies. Thanks to them, normal respiration, cardiac activity, and reduces swelling and normalizerbase pressure
  • antihistamines reduce allergic inflammation, are usually applied after glucorticosteroids
  • application of the neurotransmitter adrenaline the adrenaline is able to relax the muscle structure, restore blood flow and breathing process.

Recommended for patients who have already transferred to anaphylactic shock, wear vials of adrenaline.

The consequences

It is important to know that if there is anaphylactic shock, medical emergency in this case is simply necessary, as the process of allergies can manifest itself in different ways, including death due to respiratory arrest.

Prevention

Be subject to such as may every man, therefore, measures of prevention should not be neglected. So you can select the following

  • to exclude contact with possible irritants such as tobacco smoke, chemicals, etc it can all increase the propensity to allergic reactions or to boost the body’s sensitivity to allergens of different nature
  • not to contact clearly known allergen
  • timely to take anti-allergic medicines to reduce Allergy symptoms and their duration
  • signs of allergies to watch for symptoms, as well as their further manifestations.