1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (No Ratings Yet)
Loading...

Amblyopia

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Amblyopia

either

lazy eye

this is a condition in which there is decreased vision that can not be corrected with lenses or glasses, impaired contrast sensitivity and accommodative ability of one or both eyes in the absence of changes of the visual organs.

Stands functional, organic and hysterical amblyopia. Potentially, functional amblyopia must be easy to treatment, but organic in many cases is irreversible. In turn, the functional is divided into deprivation amblyopia, refractive and anisometric. This type develops in children under the age of 68 years and a consequence of deprivation of deprivation of external light actions on the retina, anisometropia, or strabismus.

The other two reduction visual acuity is often incorrectly defined as amblyopia, since they are mental or organic processes that occur in the eye or in the region of the brain.

Hysterical amblyopia is a vision impairment as the result of emotional or anxiety disorders, and stress. Its cause is the violation of interaction processes of inhibition and excitation in the brain.

Organic amblyopia is the deterioration of vision due to eye diseases or diseases of the optic tract.

Functional amblyopia is often accompanied by acquired diseases or congenital anomalies. This combination is often called the interconnected amblyopia. Stands out and monolateral amblyopia, which markedly reduced vision in one eye.

Are also degree of amblyopia, when the level of decrease in visual acuity is mild (0,40,8), medium (amblyopia average degree) (0,30,2) and high (amblyopia of high degree)(0,10,05) or very high (less than 0.04). In most cases, amblyopia in children or amblyopia in adults can develop as a result of improper light stimulation of the Central or peripheral parts of the retina or abnormal binocular interaction, which leads to the fact that the eye perceives an image that is substantially different from that which sees the other eye.

Reasons

Risk factors for development of amblyopia include the presence of strabismus before the age of 68 years, conditions that contribute to deprivatsii. Also risk include the following factors

  • prematurity
  • small weight of the newborn
  • slow mental development
  • cerebral palsy
  • retinopathy of prematurity
  • positive family history regarding the presence of diseases of the organs of vision.

Also the risk of developing such diseases as amblyopia the eye increases when Smoking of the mother during pregnancy, use of drugs and alcohol. Significant problems can cause a disruption of stereovision, which can cause complications in the implementation of professional activity, coordination of movements, of driving a car.

Symptoms

Typical symptoms for amblyopia is decreased vision in one or both eyes, difficulty of perception of volumetric objects, the difficulties of teaching. If there is strabismus, it can be complaints of deviation of the eyes, diplopia.

Diagnosis

Amblyopia can be prevented and treated more effectively than it had previously been revealed. The first examination, which enables to determine the causes of amblyopia should be performed during the first month and a half after birth, and assessment of refractive error in the first year of life. Children who are at risk should undergo annual inspection the first 68 years of life.

The main method of diagnosis is the examination of visual acuity. Additionally apply the fixation target, eye movements and their sodruzhestvennaja, refraction, accommodation. To establish the true causes, would be useful electrophysiological methods of examination and other methods that provide an opportunity to establish the likely organic or psychological etiology of decline of visual acuity.

Treatment

The best method of achieving high visual acuity and conservation is to develop a normal level of binocular vision. For successful treatment it is necessary to identify the type and main cause of amblyopia, which must be removed. A system of methods aimed at elimination of amblyopia, called pleoptic treatment.

Holding the optical correction – it is necessary to ensure a clear image on the retina of both eyes. Full correction is effective if there is anisometropia and isometropia. Has its advantages also wearing glasses or contact lenses, which involves the treatment of amblyopia in adults.

Occlusion the gold standard in the treatment of amblyopia. Can be used direct, indirect and alternatywa occlusion. The main principle of direct occlusion is closure best the eye that becomes a stimulation to suffered from amblyopia. But there may be certain psychological difficulties, especially in children under 8 years, which causes no result. Before applying this kind of occlusion plays an important role in the correction of eccentric fixation, since it largely prevents the receipt of desired efficiency. It can have a number of side effects (such as Allergy), so its use should be very cautious.

The penalization is a method of treating amblyopia, which is to create artificial anisometropia through the combination of different types of optical corrections or atropinization of the eye, which sees better. Here, the conditions for the revitalization of the affected eye, is reduced the risk of visual acuity of the healthy eye, because he is also involved in the visual process. This method is the main alternative to occlusion.

Active vision therapy (orthoptic and diplomatische treatment). This is a set of methods which give the possibility to restore or to improve the fixation and eye movement, perception of space, function, accommodation and binocular vision. This purpose can be used special devices, such as synoptophore, prismatic glasses, a special computer program and so on. Such methods give the opportunity to reduce the total duration of treatment and achieve the best results.

Some studies have shown that taking the drug Levodopa can provoke a temporary improvement in vision of the amblyopic eye, but the mechanism of effect is still not exactly defined.

Forecast

Forecast returns to a normal level of vision and the process of improving the visual function is determined by such factors

  • strict compliance with patients of all recommendations of experts
  • the correctness of the fixation of the eyes
  • form of amblyopia
  • initial visual acuity
  • the age of the patient, which treat the disease.

Amblyopia of obscure origin of which appears monolateral, if she was not treated for three months from the birth of a baby, can strongly affect the visual acuity. The chance to get a vision of 0.4 in the result are higher when in the first two months of a child’s life was carried out surgical treatment. However, even if this prediction concerning binocular vision is pessimistic. Double-sided form has the same effect, but after six months of life suffering from little one. If you do not start treatment during the critical period, the prognosis regarding the state of the view will be unsatisfactory.

Uncorrected visual anisometropia or isometropia during its development can also have significant significant effect in the development of vision. Thus, 67 percent of patients with non-correlated hyperopia suffer from strabismus. But if the time provided competent treatment, the chances to strengthen visual acuity of more than 0.5 are large enough in both types of such forms as refractive amblyopia.

When the disease such as amblyopia, strabismus that is not treated can cause the development of sensorimotor anomalies, the most significant of which is eccentric fixation. It can greatly worsen the prognosis and significantly increase the duration of treatment.

The main factor in the fight against divinecosmos amblyopia is how well the patient complies with the principles of the assigned treatment. Also plays a role in timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment. For example, in patients older than 5 years, the chance to translate a form of strabismus in alternating much lower. The lack of long dynamics in the treatment of strabismus making amblyopia treatment much more difficult. While there are no guarantees about what disease will not reoccur after the end of treatment. It is therefore necessary to conduct re-examinations at the age of 2,4, 6 and 12 months. During the year of follow-up after completion of treatment of amblyopia, a decrease in visual acuity more than two lines, defined by the table given, 21% of patients, of which same 40% that was revealed in the first five weeks after therapy was completed.

Recommend you read other articles on the topic of Amblyopia


Amblyopia or lazy eye occurs in 3% of children among the pupils of a school such naberetsya more than a dozen. And this problem is practically solved, if the time is missed. The danger of lazy eye and better vision, users DOC.UA says ophthalmologist clinic Doctor Sam Haponin Igor D.


Amblyopia or lazy eye occurs in 3% of children among the pupils of a school such naberetsya more than a dozen. And this problem is practically solved, if the time is missed. The danger of lazy eye and better vision, users DOC.UA says ophthalmologist clinic Doctor Sam Haponin Igor D.