is an inflammatory skin disease caused by changes in the sebaceous glands and their excretory ducts. While in the pathological process involved the hair follicles.
Common acne (acne). Acne vulgaris appears in girls and boys during their puberty (puberty) and gradually extend to the age of 2530 years.
In poliuretanom period, acne can be observed very rarely. The reason it can be of various endocrine diseases, such as polycystic ovaries. Menopausal acne can develop as a result of a lack of estradiol (a hormone of the female genital organs).
Ordinary acne can be a complication of seborrhea dermatological disease that is characterized by problems in the sebaceous glands.
In the presence of the seborrhea changes in the chemical composition of sebum also reduced levels of lower fatty acids which have the properties of disinfection. It becomes a cause of suppressing the bactericidal properties of sebum and the emergence of favourable conditions for the growth and reproduction of bacteria in the sebaceous glands.
In addition, when acne is an increase in sebaceous glands, hypersecretion of sebum and hyperkeratosis apparent thickening of the stratum corneum or delay its normal rejection.
Also contribute to the development of inflammation in the glands of dead cells (Horny masses), which accumulate in the excretory ducts of glands. Sebum, which is under the blocked pores become breeding ground for bacteria microorganisms
Causes of acne
Causes of acne
- individual peculiarities of hormonal status hormones that trigger acne are testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1
- the period of hormonal activity puberty, acne before menstruation
- hyperproductivity sebaceous glands
- the accumulation of dead skin cells
- genetic predisposition
- skin lesions that are accompanied by inflammation
- problems in the immune system
- the use of drugs that contain Halogens
- the effect of high doses of chlorine, for example, manufacturing jobs
- the stress that activates the adrenal glands
- features of the diet food that contains a lot of carbohydrates, cow’s milk, which is adulterated sex hormones and insulin-like growth factor-1, the seafood, which contain iodine, leading to increased symptoms of acne
- diseases of endocrine organs.
How to recognize acne
In most cases the pimples hit the face and upper neck, but if acne is severe, you can suffer shoulders, back, chest.
- Comedones is the primary elements of the rash, deprived of inflammation that occur due to blockage of the orifices of the hair follicles. They are divided into micromedons, as well as open and closed comedones. Called closed comedones that do not have free communication with the skin surface (not in contact with the outer surface of the skin). With the gradual increase in sebum closed comedones can become open.
- Papular and papules-pustular acne is the secondary elements of inflammation. Clinically, it is presented in the form pink nodules that have a diameter of 25 mm and are formed in place of the comedo. During their further development appears on top of the cone-shaped pustules. After some time its contents are purulent exudate shrinking in the crust or opened on the surface of the skin.
- After the regression in place of these pustules appear small scars or pigment spots. The clinical picture with the presence of closed and open comedones corresponds to a mild occurrence of acne, however for a more accurate classification needs an accurate count of the number of such elements.
- Interaktivnye acne is a more severe form of papules-pustular acne. It differs in that the inflammation is far enough away, and the solid papule. The process of inflammation may affect the surrounding tissue, mainly because a large number of lesions. Such nodes regressed or atrophic scars interaktivnym, followed by a bar of skin pigmentation, but with the right system of therapy they are completely absorbed, although much slower than normal papules-pustular acne.
- Phlegmasia acne later in places the appearance of acne interaktivnyj appear cystic cavities, which are filled with pus. They can merge among themselves, forming a solid region. In the literature interaktivnye and phlegmonous acne often called slavetonoone. These eels are a sign of a rather complex course of acne.
How to diagnose acne
Diagnosis of acne involves examination by a dermatologist and sometimes an endocrinologist. A doctor is the calculation of the rash, assess the level of sebum secretion. If the disease is caused by various hormonal disorders, issued a direction on the blood analysis on hormones. When the diagnosis of acne in women if you suspect that links acne with any diseases of the reproductive system, the doctor may make a referral for an ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
Modern methods of treatment
When acne treatment should be complex. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, stick to diet with reduced intake of carbohydrates, fats and spicy foods. To normalize the work of sebaceous glands is carried out correction activities of the endocrine system.
In such a process as the treatment of acne, an important factor is the strengthening of the immune system, which makes it possible to improve the efficiency of all events of medical therapy. A prerequisite to achieve the desired result and fixing of this struggle with internal medicine, which have acne.
If the disease is severe, the treatment of acne may involve the use of antibiotics. At the same time being anti-bacterial skin treatment, suppressive microflora, which becomes a cause of worsening inflammation.
Local treatment involves deep cleansing of the skin of dead cells and sebaceous plugs. With this purpose, the following procedures apply mechanical cleansing of the face, cryotherapy, laser therapy, ozone therapy, phototherapy, as well as different types of physiotherapy and peeling.
Retinoids topical use are used to treat moderate and severe forms of acne. Retinoids, derived from vitamin A, affect the life cycle of skin cells, normalize keratinization and sebum production.
With the aim of treatment of severe and resistant forms of acne are the retinoids, which are used inside. The use of these drugs is possible only on prescription, because they have strong side effects and many contraindications. It is worth remembering that in this disease, as acne, treatment should be initiated as early as possible. This will help to prevent further development of the problem and deal with it as quickly as possible.