- Risk factors in women
- Modern classification of tumors
- Pituitary adenoma and pregnancy
- Symptoms of pituitary adenoma in women
- Treatment of pituitary adenoma in women
The pituitary adenoma in women benign neoplasm, which create cells in the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe). The pituitary gland directly affects the maintenance of natural hormonal balance of the body. The pituitary adenoma in women, located in the region of Turkish saddle (at the base of the skull) make up 10% of all primary tumors that arise in brain tissue. Statistics show that every 5 women of an adult age there is a pathology of the pituitary any form.
A large part of adenomas of the tumor, having no morphological signs of malignant. However, they are prone to germination and further squeezing close to the pituitary gland of the brain structures. This may manifest as endocrine, neurological and visual disorders. Also, the pituitary adenoma may be accompanied by a number of complications with krovoisliania in the tumour (apoplexy), cystic degeneration. Also have an unconfirmed theory about the too duty of taking oral contraceptives.
Risk factors in women
The causes of pituitary adenoma in women is still not defined. Now doctors are two main theories for the possible development of tumors is a violation of the regulation of hypothalamic releasing hormones or of the theory of internal defect of the pituitary gland. The first theory to explain the failure of production of hormones of peripheral endocrine glands, excessive production of hypothalamic liberidou or insufficiency of statins. This may develop hyperplasia of the cells of the pituitary gland with the further development of the adenoma. The second theory is associated with genetic disorders cells of the pituitary gland, which causes neoplastic transformation.
Modern classification of tumors
Classification by a pituitary adenoma complicated by the fact that anatomically the pituitary gland is part of the nervous system, and functionally relates to the endocrine. The parameters for classification
- by hormonal activity is most often prolactinomas, somatotropinomy, kortikotropinom, thyrotropinoma, gonadotropinom
- for gormonalnoe inactivity somatotropine, corticotropin, gonadotropine, tireotropina, lactotropes, zero-cell, oncocytoma
- size picoarray (up to 3mm), microadenomas (up to 10mm), macroadenoma (more than 10mm), giant (40mm)
- the peculiarities of growth and location Indaselassie (inside of the Turkish saddle), suprasellar (growing up), intracellularly (down) laterosternite (sideways), antiallergy (forward), retrocalcaneal (back).
If you do not put the correct diagnosis at the stage of clinical manifestations of excessive secretion of pituitary hormones in the growth of tumors pituitary adenoma symptoms in women develop following ophthalmologically-neurological, as well as others associated with the increase of the tumor.
Pituitary adenoma and pregnancy
Pregnancy and adenoma incompatible concepts (if prolactinsecreting the pituitary adenomas, which was not an adequate treatment). The tumor secretes a large amount of prolactin, what to get pregnant woman can not. However, there are cases when the pituitary adenoma starts to develop during pregnancy. As for other types of pituitary adenomas in women if the concentration of prolactin in the blood is within normal limits, no barriers to conceiving a child there. If the disease is detected throughout pregnancy women are recommended to have observed not only a gynecologist but also an endocrinologist and a neurosurgeon.
Symptoms of pituitary adenoma in women
In order to diagnose the pituitary adenoma in women, modern medicine uses such levels of verification
- biochemical clinical symptoms the signs of hormonally active adenomas (acromegaly, a disease Itsenko-Kushinga)
- data visualization and operational findings information on the size, location, invasion into surrounding structures, allowing to determine the forecast of development and to choose the optimal method of treatment
- microscopic examination of the material of the tumor (it takes at biopsy) in the differential diagnosis between pituitary adenoma in women and other types of tumors agapovskogo origin
- immunohistochemical examination of the tumor
- microscopy (electronic)
- these genetic studies and molecular biology.
In order to diagnose tumors of the anterior pituitary, using the identification of groups of symptoms (Triad Hirsch). These are the signs of pituitary adenoma in women are fairly common
- ophthalmic disorders
- endocrine disorders
- radiographic changes in the Turkish saddle.
The full survey and the list of necessary tests to confirm or refute a pituitary adenoma, a woman can get from a neurosurgeon.
Treatment of pituitary adenoma in women
Possibilities of modern medicine allow us to successfully deal with BPH. For the treatment of tumors using medical techniques, surgical removal of the adenoma and radiation therapy.
If to speak about modern methods of surgical treatment of pituitary adenoma in women, depending on which direction a tumor is growing, can be applied endoscopic transnasal (through the nose) removal of pituitary adenomas, when expressed ekstrazellliarna growth of any kind transcranial intervention.
After removal of pituitary adenoma, the possible consequences and complications of trauma to healthy tissue of the pituitary gland, disorders of cerebral circulation, blurred vision, liquorrhea, infection processes. If you use an endoscopic technique, the possibility of negative consequences is minimized.
If the pituitary adenoma in women removed endoscopically, time of hospital stay with no complications 1-3 days. The rehabilitation program is developed by the attending physician individually for each patient. Compliance with the rules allows to avoid relapse.
Full restoration of visual functions that have been lost due to the proliferation of the tumor is possible only in case if the operation was carried out in the early stages of development of visual disorders. There are cases when the patient cannot restore the ability to work due to irreversible visual defects or endocrine-metabolic dysfunction.
Given that the treatment of the disease use including hormonal drugs, treatment of pituitary adenoma is not carried out during pregnancy (this applies to medical and surgical treatment). Doctors (gynecologist, endocrinologist, neurosurgeon) carrying out permanent monitoring of the pregnant woman and periodically check the level of prolactin, sent to test acuity and fields of vision.
It is therefore very important to identify pituitary adenoma in its early stages, before the onset of symptoms with irreversible consequences. To do this is to conduct a comprehensive examination, if in any doubt, refer to the endocrinologist regularly, in order to diagnose and conduct treatment in the most gentle manner.