this damage to the cartilage of the patella, which is a natural shock that occurs as a result of trauma, excessive stress, other negative factors. The patella is displaced and the friction of the protruding parts of the bones. It causes metabolic disorders in the cartilage covering it.
The more accurate term for this condition is called patellofemoral pain syndrome. If the patient fails to provide medical care, it can lead to serious discomfort in the daily life of the people will not be able to squat and climb stairs.
For a widely used system Auterbridzha there are four degrees of chondromalacia, which determine the depth of the clinical process
- for the first degree is characterized by mild thickening, swelling of the cartilage
- for the second degree of cracks and recesses with a diameter of 1 cm
- the chondromalacia of the third degree is deep cracks with a diameter of 1 cm, reaching to the bone
- for the fourth degree is the exposure of subchondral bone.
Causes destruction of cartilage of the patella and the doctors just can not think of. However, there are a number of reasons, considered to be the main. These include
- too high load on the knee joint, especially if they are repeated. They occur when you perform some sports activities jumping, running, deep squats, etc.
- broken geometric arrangement of bones
- broken position of the bone structures of the knee
- a knee injury (patellar) fracture, dislocation
- excess body weight
- the age factor is usually pain syndrome occurs in young people and adolescents. In older age it is rather caused by arthritis
- women suffer a fracture of the patella more often than men. This is due to the fact that the bones in the knee joint are connected by a large angle due to the greater width of the pelvis in women
- sports (running, jumping) and moderate loads increase more rapidly than the load, the higher the risk.
The chondromalacia patella makes itself felt dull, aching pain that occurs in the front part of the knee joint. In some cases, it is enhanced
- when climbing up or descending down the stairs
- in the position squatting, or kneeling
- the long sitting with knees bent.
With extension of the knee is often crackled, the feeling of friction. Pain may be episodic or feel constantly, from time to time seeking. If knee pain does not disappear within a few days, you must contact your doctor.
Treatment of chondromalacia of the patella is engaged to a podiatrist. The patient will help the doctor if you will specify exactly what the symptoms are concerned, when they appeared, whether he associates his condition with any of the activities, taken any supplements and which ones. The presence of previous images will help to determine dynamic fracture of the patella.
During the examination, the doctor palpated the knee at different points, move the leg into different positions. Such examination helps to exclude other similar diseases.
There are other diseases with similar symptoms. For this purpose, x-rays and a CT scan. The first allows you to see the condition of the bone tissue, the second gives an idea of the soft tissues of the knee joint.
Also used magnetic resonance therapy, however it is more expensive than previous studies.
Treatment of chondromalacia is conservative and radical methods. Conservative methods include
- medication receiving npsv (acetaminophen aspirin) or analgesics
- physiotherapy rehabilitation exercises help to strengthen the muscles that support the patella and knee joint and stabilize the latter.
The patient is assigned the wearing of knee pads or arch supports. They reduce the load on the joint, contribute to the alignment of the patella. A similar effect is provided and vintovka knee. After a workout on the knee, it is recommended to apply cold (ice). For the period until recovery, the patient is advised to reduce the load on the joint. Sports can not be replaced is less traumatic Cycling, swimming, etc.
If you start treatment when diagnosed with chondromalacia of 1 degree, in most cases, the cartilage is partially restored. If conservative treatment is powerless, what happens in advanced cases, then maybe surgical intervention arthroscopy, lateral release.
Arthroscopy is used to enter the arthroscope, a special instrument equipped with a light and lens in the knee through a small incision. Through the arthroscope and surgical instruments are introduced and carried out the removal of damaged tissue.
Lateral release is performed when the disease is associated with the wrong location of the patella. On the lateral part of the knee is the tearing of the ligaments is restored to its normal position in the intercondylar sulcus than decreases the pressure on the cartilage. In severe instances, multiple treatment methods.
The symptoms of chondromalacia, and therefore the disease itself, can be prevented. To do this, you should make the following recommendations.
To maintain the stability of the knee joint will help physical exercises aimed at strengthening leg muscles.
In sports it is necessary to improve the technique of the exercise. Before class, you must perform a warm-up, aimed at preparing joints to high loads. Flexibility will increase stretching exercises.
To not developed chondromalacia of the knee joint, the load should increase gradually, it is impossible to prevent abrupt changes in the intensity of sports and physical education.
It is important to monitor their weight. Reducing body weight will reduce pressure on the knee joint.
Of great importance shoes. It should be comfortable and provide good cushioning. In case of flat feet need special insoles.