the concept, which came from Latin language and means the fingers together, so the pathology under this title is characterized by broshennyj fingers upper or lower extremities. Such a defect is more common in boys than in girls.
Congenital abnormalities include syndactyly disease which requires the intervention of a surgeon. The incidence today is much increased compared to the last century, and depending on the region varies from a few hundredths to two percent, that is, one case is 23 thousand newborns.
The disease has two forms
- simple is characterized in that the fingers are connected by a soft tissue with a normal structure
- the complex in this form the fingers are the common nail, skin and bone structure, but also observed a typical bone deformation and other defects.
Often webbed observed between the third and fourth fingers, rarely between the second and third. But webbed feet rare.
Types of pathology
The syndactyly distinguished on morphological grounds and form of expression. The morphological factor is isolated
- bone phalanges sraseni at the level of the bone structure
- skin toes connected by a membrane of soft tissue, usually running the entire length
- terminal ends of the phalanges are connected
- skin webbed fingers are connected by a small skin bridge, occurs rarely.
On the form there are the following types of pathology
- zygodactyly is, the presence of partial or complete membrane, usually between the third and fourth finger, the second and third toe of the
- synpolydactyly fusion of the fingers combined with incomplete doubling, usually between the third and fourth fingers, while the fourth is doubled, and on the foot between the fourth and fifth fingers of the fifth doubled
- syndactyly of the fourth and fifth fingers, bilateral or partial anomaly on the hand, the feet are of normal structure. In this form the little finger is short and middle phalanges are completely absent (synostosis)
- type Haas all the fingers adherent soft tissue membrane, but the toes show no abnormalities. On the hand there may also be a sixth finger, and the brush is different legkoobratimy form
- the fifth type syndactyly is complicated by the synostosis of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones, usually this happens between the fourth and third fingers and on the foot between the second and third.
Causes of syndactyly has been studied in detail, the fruit has a physiological pathology in the early stages of his life, that is, on the 45 week of development inside the mother. And later (78 week) should be a separation of the fingers due to the rapid growth of the wrist bones, accompanied by a slowdown in the growth of the tissues between the fingers, but such action is not carried out for some reason.
Like other developmental defects, syndactyly can occur due to certain reasons
- the anomaly at the genetic level, which is transmitted in an autosomal dominant way, and often fused fingers accompanied by other abnormalities in the skeletal system (cryptically, oculo-dento-osseous dysplasia)
- adverse pregnancy
- work in hazardous work
mother or father
- residence in contaminated areas
- the use of toxic substances that may be contained in medicines or foods.
Syndactyly of the toes or hands are visible at birth of the child, as this congenital abnormality. That is, for this defect is characteristic of one main symptom of fused phalanges in the feet or hands.
The most simple form of the disease is membranous syndactyly, the characteristic features of which are spliced fingers, similar to membranes of animals. The same about signs has and osseous syndactyly. Distinguish membranous and osseous forms the basis of the examination light.
Also common, and cutaneous syndactyly, which manifests itself in the form of a single skin hard case two fingers.
Diagnose pathology can already at birth on the basis of visual inspection. And to differentiate one form from another, is assigned to the x-ray examination.
If the child is found syndactyly, treatment is always done surgically. In each case, the syndactyly operation is assigned individually. But any surgical intervention aimed at ensuring the normal movement of the fingers, and this should restore all soft and bone tissue.
Usually with milder forms of surgical operations carried out after 4 years, applying the plastic skin and a zigzag cut. In complex forms it is necessary to apply early action to avoid difficult strains. Moreover, complicated forms of pathology may be accompanied by several operations for several years.