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Subarachnoid hemorrhage

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Subarachnoid hemorrhage

bleeding in the cavity between the soft brain and the arachnoid membranes.

Reasons

The cause of this disease lies in violation of the integrity of the wall in the intracranial arteries which is located on the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres or on the basis thereof (not specifically in the matter of the brain), accompanied by the extravasation of blood in subarachnoid space which is the space in the gap between the meninges.

Define the disease for several reasons

  • the presence of traumatic brain injury caused by head trauma and brain injury, with possible damage to arteries
  • spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs under the influence of various damaging factors
  • high blood pressure (arterial blood)
  • the abuse of alcohol
  • the use of narcotic substances
  • in infectious diseases, such as

    (this disease is transmitted sexually and affects all organs, including the arteries of the brain)

  • subarachnoid hemorrhage of a traumatic nature occurring as a result of injury or infection of the brain, leading to rupture of the aneurysm of the arteries of the brain.

The process of rupture of arteriovenous malformation of the brain due to abnormal development of the vascular system of the brain, obtained at birth and with age, can increase in size. This disease of the mind is a tangle of veins and arteries, which are intertwined with each other.

Symptoms

Subarachnoid hemorrhage in children and adults is accompanied by the attack of extremely severe headache, the pain occurs suddenly, it is determined the following symptoms

  • fear of light (any light source causes the eye pain, the same feelings arise in a lit room)
  • gag reflex and nausea
  • seizures involving contraction of the muscles of the whole body or extremities, which can lead to loss of consciousness
  • psychomotor agitation arising chaotic activity, resulting in harm to themselves and others.
  • In addition, in subarachnoid hemorrhage symptoms arise from a dysfunction of the cortical area of the brain and cranial nerves, which is accompanied by hemorrhage
  • the skin of the body becomes insensitive
  • strabismus occurs
  • is disturbed it raises neclenorazdelnaya speech, misunderstanding, a familiar language, the inability to talk.

Diagnosis

  • the history of the disease

    • the time of appearance of headache, photophobia patient
    • the cause of the headache (sharp rise in blood pressure, trauma to the skull, strong attempts at defecation). Or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) arose spontaneously
    • the finding of the abuse of alcohol and tobacco
    • settling time high blood pressure of the patient, what medications the patient has taken to lower blood pressure.
  • neurological examination of the patient revealing the neurological disease, the determination of the level of consciousness of the patient. In subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosis may show obvious signs of disease, such as asymmetry of the face, blurred speech, weakness in the limbs
  • the blood analysis will help to determine the degree of blood coagulation
  • Lumbar puncture method, which allows using a special needle to make the fluid inlet of the spinal cord in the area of the lumbar belt through the skin of the back, which provides the metabolism and nutrition of the brain. Taken 1-2 ml of cerebrospinal fluid and determine the presence of blood or blood residues
  • CT and MRI of the head allow more space to study the structure of the brain and to determine localization and extent of hemorrhage
  • The echo-encephalogram gives an estimate of the possible displacement of the brain relative to bones of the skull under the pressure of intracranial hemorrhage
  • TCD (transcranial Doppler) determines the blood flow in the intracranial arteries, by applying the ultrasonic probe to the skull (at the temples). With subarachnoid hemorrhage in the brain often produces spasm (narrowing of the blood vessels of the brain), caused by the ingress of blood into the slit-like space between the membranes of the brain
  • MRA (magnetic resonance angiography) allows to determine the patency and integrity of the arteries in the cranial cavity.

Treatment

Treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage is to stabilize the patient’s condition, namely, homeostatic therapy, and elimination of the source of bleeding and in timely prevention of relapses and complications. The consequences of subarachnoid hemorrhage have a negative trend, mortality in this disease reaches 50% of all cases.