it is also known as logoneurosis, interruption of speech, manifested in violation of the tempo and rhythm of speech and is caused by spasmodic contraction, the components of the vocal apparatus of the human muscles.
The occurrence of stuttering is associated with the formation of the speech itself, because the presence of this phenomenon known from ancient times, and many well-known historical person was prone to stuttering.
Modern scholars distinguish between three types of stuttering, neurotic, neurosis, and neurosis with neurotic layers. These types of phenomena differ in a number of observable manifestations, for example, the activity of speech, the localization of convulsive manifestations, pronunciation of sounds, tempo, and expressiveness of speech, psycho – logo-motor skills, the manifestation of the syndrome of Preseli (swelling nose) and other symptoms.
Globally, about three million stutterers and stuttering often seen in children, whereas among adults reveal only three percent of the patients. It is therefore considered that this phenomenon often takes place with age, and the appearance of it occurs most often in children 2-6 years, in the process of formation of speech. Moreover, the observed gender difference as boys are more (about three times) prone to stutter compared to girls.
Regarding the stuttering, the cause of which scientists are definitely not installed, allocate the most probable number of genetic differences, and neurological factors. Regardless of the variety, the stuttering is accompanied by the development of tone and convulsive activity of the speech centers, in particular Broca’s area. There are cases when the cause of the disease consider the fright in early childhood, and in the case of adults it can manifest as a consequence of concussion. A similar situation is stuttering amenable to a variety of therapy and can take place over time, especially effective method of treatment of stuttering in children.
Usually, this condition is manifested in the unnatural stretching of individual sounds or the repetition of the same sounds, syllables or even phrases. From a psychological point of view, stuttering is usually accompanied by increased anxiety and nervousness, as well as a pronounced fear of speaking. Stammering, trying to overcome stuttering, can show voltage, Tiki, unnatural grimaces, and convulsive movements.
The mechanism and complications
Symptoms of stuttering caused by spasms of the vocal apparatus, which involves the lips, palate, tongue and laryngeal muscles. The name of the stuttering talks about the relationship with hiccup and twitch are subdivided into articulation and voice components. Observed respiratory convulsions and psychological feeling of lack of air. At the level of the nervous system, excessive excitation of motor nerve centers of speech in the cerebral cortex, spreading to adjacent brain centers, in particular associated with emotional activity.
Therapies for stuttering are being developed from antiquity to our times and today there are many, however, provides no guarantees, none of the known ways. Anyone wishing to get rid of this disease is to acquire strength of will and powerful motivation. Successful cases, when the correction of stuttering gave excellent results – weight, but they demanded from the patients themselves powerful effort and patience. Of the most common tips you can select the following monitor the fluency of speech helps manner of speaking, to chant, to avoid haste and bustle, and the most popular and affordable therapy is considered to be reading text out loud for at least an hour a day.