called curvature of the spine to the right or left side axis. Most often, such deviation subject to the thoracic and lumbar spine. Scoliosis in children the most common form of manifestation of this disease. The reason for this is the stages of development of the spine, namely the closure of the cartilage growth zones, the ossification of the vertebrae and epifizov, the ossification processes of the vertebrae.The disease stops its development with the completion of the growth process.
- infantile observed in children up to two years
- juvenile idiopathic appears between the ages of 4 to 6 years
- adolescently the time of development from 10 to 14 years.
The localization of the deviations allows to allocate the following types of scoliosis
- thoracic curved thoracic spine
- prone lumbar curvature lumbar portion
- thoracolumbalis curvature is observed in the transition between the thoracic and lumbar divisions
- combined observed S-shaped deviation.
Depending on the type of scoliosis curvature is divided into
- C-shaped curved lumbar or thoracic spine in one direction right or left
- S-shaped deviation from the axis occurs in two departments, deviations occur in different directions according to the principle of counterbalance
- Z-shaped the most rare form of scoliosis in which the curvature is exposed to three places of the spine.
Also scoliosis can be divided into left, right and combined.
Etiology shared the scoliosis is either congenital or acquired. Congenital scoliosis can develop because of fused vertebrae in the amount of two or more developmental abnormalities of the vertebral arches and processes. Also the reason for this curvature can be additional vertebras,. Due to congenital scoliosis is an asymmetrical development of the spine.
Acquired scoliosis in turn can be divided into the following types
- the developmental cause is defective developed lumbosacral. To provoke such a development may not zaramenye arches of the vertebrae, abnormally developed vertebral body, etc.
- anorexia can be triggered by an acute viral disease affecting the Central nervous system, for example, poliomielita, myopathy, cerebral palsy, leading to spasms of the muscular system and diseases, leading to the formation of cavities and voids in the spinal cord. In other words, the basis for the development of neurogenic scoliosis the affected neurons of the spinal cord motor type, which subsequently affect changes in the ventral and dorsal muscles
- rachitic main cause is rickets that affect the skeletal system of the child. As a result of the influence of developing osteoporosis, leading to reduced density of the vertebrae, and it can lead to deformation of lower extremities
- static developed due to unilateral load of the spinal muscles and the abdominal muscles. In addition, it may be caused by different length of the legs, pelvis pathologically developed or Krivoshey.
- traumatic develops due to injuries of the spine
- idiopathic acquired scoliosis, which is most prevalent. May develop because of pathological disorders of the growth process of the spine, disorders of the spine, wearing a static-dynamic character or because of neuromuscular failure.
The main characteristic of scoliosis progressive curvature of the spine in the plane of the first vertical, then horizontal, growth in length occurs slowly. In severe cases there may be paralysis and paresis of the lower extremities.
The degree of scoliosis
- 1st angle is not more than 5
- 2nd angle limits deformation are in the range from 6 to 25
- 3 the angle of deformation does not exceed 50
- 4-I the deformation is at an angle greater than 50.
Scoliosis of the 1st degree
Characterized by the following arrangement of the clavicles are asymmetrical, the distance from the blades to the spine is different from one another, abdominal muscles and back muscles weakened. During the slope, you notice the cushion in the lumbar region, located on the opposite side of the curvature, triangles waist asymmetric.
Scoliosis 2nd degree
Is mainly determined by a significant S-strain. When tilted forward the body is expressed rib hump, netplace markedly asymmetrical, the visible cushion to the back, there was asymmetry triangles waist. Radiography allows us to see the skewness of the vertebrae, and rotation about a vertical axis.
Scoliosis of the 3rd degree
Is characterized in that the above deformation is expressed vividly observed perenoshennoy pelvis clearly visible rib hump, the General configuration of the body different from the norm. Changes that occur to the spine during this stage, cause a displaced spinal cord, changes in the location of internal organs, disruption of the functioning of offset bodies. In connection with the decrease in respiratory capacity of the lungs increased the likelihood of bronchitis or pneumonia.
Scoliosis of the 4th degree
During the flow of a 4-stage process of growth stops completely, the trunk is deformed. Also, there is lordosis and kyphosis. Trunk fully deflected relative to the main axis. Perhaps the emergence of wedge-shaped deformation of the vertebrae. In view of the clearly biased to the spinal cord increases the likelihood of the occurrence of paresis of the lower extremities.
People with 3rd or 4th degree of development of scoliosis are more prone to cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease (increased risk ranges from 20% to 30%). In fewer cases can join in the dysfunction of the genitourinary system.
Diagnosis of scoliosis includes the following advice traumatologists, surgeons, neurologists, spine doctors and physical therapy, General tests that help to determine the presence of comorbidities, instrumental methods of investigation of the body, for example, radiography in two positions of the body imaging (CT and MRI), computer topography optical type and electrocardiografia. Also scoliosis can be diagnosed at home, when on external signs it is possible to detect the disease.
The choice of treatment of scoliosis is determined on the basis of the type of disease, age and severity of the deformity. The easiest treatment is scoliosis 1st and 2nd degree in childhood. Elimination of the disease contribute to the well wearing special corsets, the proper organization of a workplace of the child, swimming lessons and a systematic treatment of gymnastic exercises. In the case of scoliosis provoked by the different length of legs, to help tailor-made shoes or the attachment of a higher insole.