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Salmonellosis


Salmonellosis

an infectious disease occurring in the intestines, which is the causative agent of rod-like bacterium Salmonella. The disease salmonellosis is subjected to the defeat of the gastrointestinal tract.

The main symptoms of salmonellosis

Signs of Salmonella are expressed depending on the form in which the disease is. Also on the manifestation and severity of the symptomatic picture is affected by the severity of the disease. There are the following symptoms

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • bloating
  • pain occurring in the abdomen. The pain can occur in the upper part of the abdomen or in the lower, often around the navel
  • bloating of the abdomen
  • the chair is in liquid form. The nature of the chair depends on the form of development of the disease
  • the contents of impurities in the stool of a pathological nature, for example, mucus, blood, greens
  • change the color of stool from normal to yellow, green, orange
  • the emergence of the urge to defecate, which are false
  • body temperature can reach 40)
  • the condition of General weakness, appearance of lethargy
  • loss of appetite.

In the case of the disease in severe form, the patient has dehydration.

The duration of the incubation period of salmonellosis is different depending on the method of infection. If the infection got into the human organism together with food, the incubation period lasts 1224 hours on average, but sometimes can last up to 3 days. In the case of a contact-household method of infection incubation lasts from 3 to 8 days.

Infection of Salmonella may develop and occur in the following forms

  1. Gastrointestinal salmonellosis is characterized by acute onset of the disease, vomiting, watery form of a chair, pain in the abdomen, bloating, occurrence of pain when performing palpation, feeling of weakness, headaches, increased body temperature, pain in joints, muscle pain, seizures. In the case of more severe forms of the flow may change color.
  2. Lipoptena form of infection is characterized by long rise in temperature (fever can last up to 2 weeks), changes in the size of the spleen and liver of the patient, pronounced signs of intoxication, reducing the frequency of heart muscle contractions, abrupt changes in body temperature, appearance of the rash herpes nature in the abdomen.
  3. Septic salmonellosis is characterized by spikes in body temperature, severe sweating, the formation of purulent lesions of a secondary nature due to the spread of infectious processes to different organs through the blood.
  4. Subclinical form of salmonellosis, the lack of any symptomatic picture. In this form of the infection, people do not feel the disease, but is a means of infection. To diagnose the disease can analysis for salmonellosis, which determines the presence of bacteria in feces and the presence of special antibodies in the blood.

Form of transferring bacteria lack the symptomatic picture, the detection of bacterial pathogens solely as a result of the surveys. In turn is divided into

  • acute lack of symptoms in ill people, for three months of tests and examinations record the presence of bacteria
  • chronic carriage of bacteria bacteria can be detected in a period exceeding three months

transient form is seen in those people who had not suffered the disease. In this form of the bacteria the presence of Salmonella in the body is detected 2 times consecutively for three months, further analysis did not show the presence of bacteria.

Complications

As a result of the transfer of the disease may occur processes of complications of salmonellosis. These include seizures, kidney failure, loss of body weight, the progress of dehydration. In the case of septic form of the disease is the spread of infectious processes in other organs, often leading to the development of secondary purulent foci at the site of lesion, for example, the brain, liver or bones.

The reasons for the development of the disease

Mostly, the infection is spreading through farm animals, waterfowl, chickens, pigeons. In most cases, bacteria penetrate the human body through food or water.

This disease tends to be transmitted through bedding, household items, or by inhaling the bacteria.

Diagnosis of salmonellosis

  • conducting history and analysis of existing complaints
  • the implementation of the overall examination of the patient
  • a blood test to determine laboratory signs of inflammatory processes
  • the implementation of the reaction of indirect hemagglutination
  • carrying out antibiogram
  • therapeutic consultation.

The main methods of treatment of salmonellosis

Therapy of mild forms of the disease is to use the following methods

  • compliance with dietary needs
  • consumption of large amounts of salt solutions with high frequency and low volume of consumption
  • the use of drugs causing enzyme and sorbite impact on the affected organism
  • using the methods of infusion therapy
  • in some cases prescribers of antibacterial principle.

In severe cases the flow of the therapeutic measures used in the hospital environment.

Prevention

Prevention of salmonellosis prevents infection and facilitates the treatment of symptoms of salmonellosis in the future. Preventive measures involve control of food consumption, a survey of workers in the catering trade, commercial establishments, institutions, which may be salmonellosis in children should also avoid sharing utensils and household items with a carrier of the infection.