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Rabies


Rabies

an acute viral infection. The disease attacks the Central nervous system. The disease causes an RNA-containing virus that belongs to the family rhabdoviridae. Outside the body it is not able to live long, so to meet him in the atmosphere is virtually impossible. The virus passes from one animal body to another body, it causes the main method of infection via a bite.

Reasons

Infected people may be from a sick animal. The most dangerous for us, rabies in dogs, because their bites we are exposed to most often. Along with the animal’s saliva, the rabies virus enters the wound, and not into the bloodstream.

Possible contamination in case of contact with saliva of an infected animal mucous membranes or open wounds.

The localization of the bite plays a very important role. The most dangerous are the bites inflicted in the soft tissue of the head and neck.

Symptoms

Given the fact, how is this affliction, there are several periods.


The incubation period

It lasts from one to TPX months, but most often is 2030 days. The important role played by the localization of the bite, the virus enters the body. The closer the place of the head, the shorter the period of the disease. Thus, it can be reduced to 12 days, or stretch to 12 months.


Short-period precursors

Its duration is usually two or three days. At this time the bite starts to hurt, there is etcnot and redness of the skin. Body temperature increases slightly and does not exceed 37.5 degrees. It is noted the deterioration of appetite, the patient is in a state close to depression, disturbed sleep, malaise appears.


The period of excitation

It is characterized by the appearance of signs typical for this disease

  • a strong fear of water, not allowing even to quench their thirst, because in this case once there are unpleasant sensations. Reduction of the respiratory muscles and muscles of the pharynx accompanied with pain and provoke hallucinations and violent outbursts
  • during the attacks the work of the salivary glands becomes more active, resulting in increased salivation
  • bright light and loud sounds effect on the nervous system is also annoying
  • aggression can dramatically changed complete peace of mind, and Vice versa. The duration of this phase is a maximum of three days. The danger is, e is that during one of the attacks, death can occur due to respiratory arrest.

The next period, which is characterized by paralysis of tongue, facial muscles, upper and lower extremities, lasts less than a day (12 to 20 hours). At the end of the time death occurs.

Given the symptoms there are also the following forms of the disease

  • bulbar form, in which there is dysfunction of the muscles of the pharynx, however, the consciousness to stay in the norm
  • cerebral form when acute hallucinations and violent outbursts
  • paralytic
  • cerebellar when the most expressed fear of light and water.

Symptoms of local character are considered to be redness around the wound, OTK on painful when pressed.


Nonspecific signs of rabies following

  • the temperature increase (it rises to 37
    0
    C, and sometimes up to 40 degrees)
  • deteriorates or even disappears completely appetite
  • disrupted the rhythm of sleep get insomnia.
  • there have been changes in the activities of the heart, manifested wczesnym contraction of the myocardium
  • patient complains of General malaise, lack of energy
  • has been in a state close to depression.


Specific features are as follows

  • the sharp contraction of the muscles of the pharynx and of the respiratory muscles when exposed to cold
  • the contraction of the muscles of the pharynx in contact with the liquid. The same effect is observed in the case where the patient just hears the sound of running water
  • hyperactivity of the salivary glands
  • periodic outbursts of aggression, hallucinations and delusions
  • paralysis of the muscles.

Diagnosis

Primarily collected data about what manifestations of the disease are present in humans, as well as information about the bite. Along with this survey the patient to determine the timing of the appearance of symptoms.

Sets the location of the bite and character.

To confirm the presence of disease involves the following manipulations in the laboratory

  • with the highlight of antibodies the virus can be detected on the cornea or on the skin
  • is the study of the cerebrospinal fluid
  • saliva
  • analysis ssnoi liquid.

In cases where death occurs before the diagnosis was made, conduct laboratory research. Nerve fibers stained with special dye that dates opportunity to identify Taurus, Babes-Negri.

Treatment

Rabies in humans is treated only in a hospital. The patient was placed in isolation ward with minimum access to light, sound and other external stimuli.

Treatment is symptomatic with the use of anticonvulsant and anesthetic drugs. For the oppression of rage prescribed sedatives and hypnotics. There are different solutions (glucose, vitamins, salt).

Unfortunately, this disease is incurable. Rabies, symptoms of which can only be alleviated, condemning the sick to death.

Prevention

Urgent action

  • the bite should immediately consult a doctor
  • must always be cleaned with special solutions to prevent migration of infection
  • after the wound was treated, should be introduced a vaccine against rabies.

Prevention in animals

  • isolation of homeless animals
  • Pets should be annually vaccinated against rabies and in cases of outbreaks of disease
  • it is necessary to control the number of wild animals
  • vaccination of wild animals using available methods.