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Pyelonephritis

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Treatment


Pyelonephritis

nothing like kidney disease, which is inflammatory in nature. In this disease the calyx, renal pelvis and renal parenchyma exposed to defeat inflammation. This disease is most common among diseases of the kidneys, which possess infectious nature.

The composition of each kidney system responsible for the accumulation and excretion of urine from the body and the parenchyma covered with connective capsule high strength.

This capsule is a kind of a cover of connective tissue type, which is the outer covering of the kidney. The parenchyma of the upper layer of the cortical substance and the inner layer of the medulla, is the inner area of the body. The accumulation of urine includes renal calyx and pelvis of the kidney, which flow into the above mentioned Cup. Between the pelvis and the ureter direct link, and the ureters, in turn, are connected with the bladder.

The likelihood of disease pyelonephritis is directly related to gender and age of the person. Basically there are three age peaks, when the probability of disease is highest, namely

  • in early childhood (children up to 3 years). Pyelonephritis in children is most often seen in girls, in the ratio of 81 compared to boys. Children’s pyelonephritis occupies the second position, following just behind diseases of the respiratory
  • the period of active reproduction (age range 18-35 years). The likelihood of disease in women more than in the ratio of 71
  • after 60 years in the elderly at risk for disease pyelonephritis men and women are affected equally, but after age 70, men are more likely to get this disease due to tumors of the prostate.

Classification

The nature of the flow of pyelonephritis identifies two forms of the disease, called acute and chronic. The conditions of occurrence of the disease distinguish primary and secondary forms of pyelonephritis, and the localization of parts pyelonephritis, bilateral and unilateral.

Pyelonephritis, which occurs not based on the consequences of the previous disease of the genitourinary system, conventionally called the primary, although most cases indicates that prior to this form of the disease of violation is still there. Those violations and deviations in the operation, which was transient and was not detected during the survey. Primary pyelonephritis is characterized in that provocative disease of the particles, and microorganisms penetrate into the kidney through the blood from the foci of an infectious process that is remote from the body.

Unlike the secondary forms of the disease is that the clinical picture shows localized symptoms are more pronounced, that enables faster and more efficient to identify pyelonephritis. This form occurs as a consequence of other diseases of the genitourinary system and kidneys in particular. The cause that provoked pyelonephritis secondary form, approximately 30% of the patients had stones in the kidney or ureter.

Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy the most striking example of the manifestation of the disease. Due to its distribution it has been highlighted as a separate form. This form of the disease diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy. The average percentage showing acute pyelonephritis in pregnant women is 2-2. 5%, in the period when the pressure in the renal pelvis increased twice. In addition, the increase in pressure on the organs and tissues in the body of pregnant women can lead to the fact that there is a gestational pyelonephritis.

Reasons

In most cases, pyelonephritis appears as a result of the impact of coliform with gram-negative properties, for example, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, more rarely as a result of influence of staphylococci and streptococci.

Also on the development of diseases can affect the deviation in the urinary tract that interfere with the normal excretion of urine from the body, which increases the likelihood of infectious processes.

Often such violations occur with prostatitis or prostate cancer, kidney stones, dystopia, increased mobility of the kidney, tumors of the urinary tract, diabetes, pathologies of the kidneys and urinary tract.

Appearance of chronic pyelonephritis can result from the acute form of the disease.

Phase of pyelonephritis

  • the phase of active inflammation during this phase is the active resistance of the organism infection, as the acute course of inflammation. During treatment of chronic pyelonephritis or without the use of treatments, there is a transition to the next phase
  • the latent phase is characterized by the remission of all inflammatory processes and elimination of the organism. The duration of this phase may last up to six months
  • emissionsa phase the disease is in a state of calm, however, due to the influence of adverse factors of relapse of inflammatory processes.

During each exacerbation, inflammation are exposed to new areas of organ tissue. After a certain time at the end of the inflammation, the affected area is the death of normal tissue and scar formation.

The result of long-term occurrence of chronic pyelonephritis is a decrease in functioning of the kidney tissue. In the end, there is a complete withering away of the working tissues, after which the kidney stops functioning, previously frowning. If a person observed a bilateral lesion of the tissues of the kidneys, the result of this process will be acquired chronic renal failure.

Symptoms

A characteristic feature of the clinical picture of the occurrence of acute pyelonephritis or exacerbation of chronic is the following triad of symptoms

  • increased body temperature, the component 38-40C or higher, accompanied by profuse sweating and chills
  • bilateral or unilateral pain in the lumbar region
  • the muddy color of urine, which in large quantities are present in cereals, and in the case of stagnation of urine in the container appears purulent sediment at the bottom.

In some cases, the onset of the disease occurs when the manifestation of the acute form of cystitis is characterized by frequent urination, causing pain, pain arising in the bladder, the appearance of blood at the end of urination. There may also be pain in the head and muscles, nausea, vomiting, decreased or absent appetite, feeling of weakness and General weakness.

The development of chronic pyelonephritis occurs gradually, starting at an early age, although in some cases it may contribute to the acute form of the disease. At the beginning of the development process the patient has no complaints, or may have complaints of increased fatigue, slight fever, light fever, especially after suffering colds, and aching pain in the lumbar region. There may also be a complaint of high blood pressure of the patient.

The lower efficiency of kidney function, there is a feeling of dry mouth, thirst, disorders and abnormalities of the function of urination.

Quite often, the disease can manifest itself exclusively in anemia, which is difficult to be cured, a mild form of bacteriuria, long-term process of intoxication in the case of the missing kidney failure.

Episodes of renal colic in the presence of stones in the patient precede the beginning of the development of pyelonephritis. Infectious processes and stagnation of urine provokes a manifestation of a more severe clinical picture of the disease in the acute form, rather than during the initial process of inflammation in the body.

There has been a sharp deterioration of the patient, manifested through elevated body temperature, which is delayed at a level not lower 3839, the growing weakness of the body, palpitations, nausea and vomiting, headache, dry mouth and constant thirst. Also shows the strain of lumbar muscles the protective nature of tension of the front abdominal muscles.

Symptoms of fever are nothing but a manifestation of pyelonephritis in children. First, there has been a sharp increase in body temperature, chills, potresaushi body, often occurring at the same time of day, the sharp pain of the head, perspiration, accompanied by a fall in temperature.

Treatment

The treatment of pyelonephritis must be treated with the individual positions, developing a comprehensive and long-term treatment that addresses the root causes of a specific case of the disease. Before proceeding to the direct cure, you must find out the nature of the microorganisms, reaction to antibiotics and medications, level of activity and capabilities of functioning of the kidneys.

In the acute form of the disease you need to treat with antibacterial drugs, first restore rollback urine in the case of obstruction of the urinary tract. Methods of treatment of chronic forms depend on the phase of the disease, resulting in isolated therapeutic measures in acute and relapse prevention interventions of pyelonephritis.