pathological condition, which provokes exceeded the level of the interstitial fluid. Occurs by one of two mechanisms. In the first case, the amount of interstitial fluid increases due to increase hydrostatic pressure in pulmonary blood vessels (hydrostatic edema). Second by exceeding the level of filtering plasma at a pressure in the normal range (membrane swelling).
Causes of pulmonary edema
Hydrostatic pulmonary edema occurs because of the increase of the pressure provoked by
- heart diseases in decompensation
- occlusion of blood vessels of the lungs
- the impaired ability of the heart to contract (myocardial of the left ventricle, total infarction, arrhythmia and blockade)
- the ingress of air into the pleural cavity (pneumothorax)
- acute respiratory failure (aspiration obstruction due to foreign body).
Membrane pulmonary edema occurs because
- noninflammatory causes of the inhalation of dangerous gases (chlorine, mercury, carbon monoxide), aspiration, respiratory distress syndrome
- inflammatory causes of sepsis, pneumonia.
Symptoms of pulmonary edema
First of all you need to know about the 4 forms of the rate of development of pulmonary edema fulminant, acute, subacute, lingering. In some cases it is possible to observe precursors of edema, increasing shortness of breath, rapid breathing, the appearance of moist rales, frequent cough. The first symptoms of edema in acute chest pain, feeling of compression, increasing shortness of breath and increased respiratory movements. Patient hard to inhale and exhale, the feeling of shortage of air.
Further quickens the heartbeat, skin covered with cold sticky sweat, acquires a bluish tint. At the beginning of the attack occurs dry cough, which develops further in the wet, with large crackles and frothy sputum with a pinkish color. In severe cases, mucus exits through the nose.
Another characteristic symptom often intermittent loud (gurgling) breath. The patient is afraid, does not exclude sputannosti consciousness. With increasing edema the pulse becomes thready, blood pressure falls. Due to fulminant edema, these symptoms occur rapidly, and the chances of rescue of the person virtually no. Edema in the subacute and protracted form may develop gradually.
Treatment of pulmonary edema
While the ambulance is in transit, it is necessary to move the person in a sitting or upright position, loosen his clothes, to provide access to fresh air, give a pill of nitroglycerin or furosemide.
The doctors in the first place to provide the normalization of pressure in the airway, if necessary, resuscitation. Also prescribe a course of drugs designed to remove the cause and effects of edema.
In order to prevent the development of pulmonary edema, it is necessary to undergo diagnosis and consult from an experienced pulmonologist. To find the best specialist and make an appointment for an appointment using the website Doc.ua.