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Pollinosis hay fever

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment

Hay fever

(seasonal rhinitis, hay fever) is one of the most common diseases of an allergic nature caused by development of local allergic reactions in response to direct exposure to pollen allergens. The diseases characteristic of strict seasonality in relation to the onset of symptoms, the inflammatory process involves the mucosa of the nasal cavity, conjunctiva of the eye. Much less frequently the disease affects the mucous membranes of the ear cavity and the throat. Seasonal (allergic) rhinitis is a contributing factor to the development of asthma.

According to statistics, the prevalence of seasonal rhinitis (allergic rhinitis) among the population of different countries ranges from 10% to 30% according to the world Allergy organization (WAO). It is worth considering the fact that only 60% of patients seek medical help, and the others independently struggle with illness.

Worldwide there is an increased incidence of allergic rhinitis, which is associated with deterioration of environmental conditions of human living (air pollution), climate change (temperature, humidity, storms) and high frequency of the moving person (travel, travel).

Allergic rhinitis

is a global problem, as it affects not only physical but also emotional health, social aspects of his life and causes significant financial cost to the patient, his family and society.

Classification of allergic rhinitis (ARIA 2008)

Mild (presence of all characteristics)

  • does not lead to sleep disturbance
  • not impact negatively on daily physical activity
  • does not reduce the quality Ueberroth
  • no painful manifestations of the disease.

Srednetagelaya severity (presence of at least one or more characteristics)

  • sleep disturbance provoked by the disease
  • negative impact on daily physical activity
  • the decline in the quality Ueberroth
  • painful symptoms.


Initiated the launch of the allergic reaction in hay fever is the pollen is very fine (0.02-0.04 mm) are wind-pollinated; plants (grasses, weeds, trees). In this regard, the peak incidence of allergic rhinitis is strictly coincides with the flowering periods of plants causal.

Sensitivity to pollen is caused by a hereditary predisposition to allergies, reduced protective activity of the ciliated epithelium intalni a Hyper-reactivity.

Therefore, engaging in primary contact with the mucosa of the nasal cavity, the pollen leads to the formation in its cells specific substances, which trigger a cascade of inflammatory reactions upon repeated contact of the particles of the pollen.

In our latitudes there are the following periods of flowering plants, which are inductors (stimulants) start allergies spring, summer and autumn.

  • Plants, flowering of which falls on the spring period (start of April-end of may) birch, alder, poplar, oak, walnut, hazel, maple and many others. it is Important to take into account the allergic cross-reactions occurring in patients allergic to tree pollen (e.g. birch)

    • food Allergy to pears, apples, apricots, plums, peaches, kiwi, cherries, cherries, nuts, parsley, celery and carrots
    • food Allergy to birch SAP
    • drug Allergy to drugs containing birch buds, alder cones, oak bark, etc.
  • Plants, flowering of which falls on the summer period (early June to early August) bluegrass, bentgrass, fescue, cocksfoot, Timothy, ryegrass, corn, wheat, barley, oats, rye, grass, Wheatgrass, etc. Cross-allergic reactions, emerging with pollen allergies cereals

    • food Allergy to any cereal and flour products
    • food Allergy to beverages obtained by the fermentation of cereals, kvass, beer
    • food Allergy to legumes, soy, sorrel
    • drug Allergy drugs, composed of grains or their byproducts.
  • Plants, flowering of which falls in autumn (end of August beginning of October) Loboda, ragweed, wormwood. Allergic cross-reactions

    • food Allergy to sunflower seeds and products, their containing (sunflower oil, halva, mayonnaise)
    • food Allergy to pumpkin (cucumbers, zucchini, watermelon, melons), Solanaceae (eggplant, tomatoes), lebedovye (spinach, beet), cruciferous (mustard, cabbage, radish)
    • food Allergy to drinks containing wormwood extract (absinthe).
    • drug Allergy drugs and herbs which includes chamomile, wormwood, mother and stepmother, succession, marigold.


The dominant symptoms in allergic rhinitis are

  • itchy nose
  • watery nasal discharge (rhinorrhea)
  • sneezing, reusable and paroxysmal
  • nasal congestion.

If the disease affects the mucous membrane of the eyes, symptoms develop

allergic conjunctivitis

  • itchy eyes
  • watery eyes
  • redness of the eyes.

Sometimes to pathological process can connect mouth and ear cavity. In this case, developing pharyngitis (strep throat), serous otitis (inflammation of middle ear), Eustachian (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity and auditory (Eustachian) tube).

If hay fever takes a moderate or severe local symptoms include General symptoms of intoxication

  • headache
  • the weakening of the sense of smell (scent)
  • sleep disorder
  • weakness.

In allergic rhinitis mild most of the symptoms occur for less than 4 days per week or less than 4 consecutive weeks, with srednetiajelom hay fever more than 4 days a week and more than 4 weeks in a row.

Allergic rhinitis needs to be mandatory treatment, as with each season of blooming, Allergy symptoms become more pronounced and long-lasting.


  • Consultation with two specialists for the accurate diagnosis of the doctor-immunologist or

    and ENT specialist.

  • The collection of clinical and allergoanamnez (the cases of allergies that were previously).
  • Cytology of a smear from the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity for detection of eosinophilia observed in allergic rhinitis.
  • A blood test to determine IgE antibodies (total).
  • Allergy analysis

    • skin tests with extremely low doses of the allergen
    • a blood test to determine IgE antibodies (specific).
  • Rhinoscopy study cavity the nasal cavity.
  • Rhinomanometry the definition of the severity of nasal breathing.


The most important conditions for effective treatment of allergic rhinitis is to limit exposure to pollen and cross-food and drug allergens.

With this purpose, you should follow certain hygiene measures in the flowering period of plants causal daily wet cleaning in the room, canavesana doors and Windows with wet sheets, which hold the pollen, thorough personal hygiene after each outing. You should avoid food that may provoke allergies as well as medicines made from medicinal plants.

Drug treatment in allergic rhinitis is aimed at relieving symptoms. With this purpose, apply

  • Oral antihistamines 1st (diphenhydramine, promethazine, clemastine, hloropiramin), 2nd (ketotifen, cetirizine, loratadine) and 3rd generation (desloratadine).
  • Decongestant drugs prescribed topically, in the form of drops and sprays in the nose Oxymetazoline, tetrahydrozoline, Xylometazoline, phenylephrine, naphazoline.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs corticosteroids (dexamethasone, betamethasone, beclomethasone, mometasone) locally.
  • Stabilizers drugs kromoglitsievoy acid.

Specific treatment of hay fever is the procedure of allergological (ASIT). The method consists in the introduction of the patient to extremely low doses of the causal allergen in one or more courses, making possible to achieve a significant reduction in the sensitivity of the immune system to the allergen and prevent the development of allergic reactions when in contact with it.

Physiotherapy treatment for allergic rhinitis is a subsidiary and are mainly aimed at improving the General condition of the patient. For this purpose, methods such as halotherapy (treatment in salt mines and caves), therapeutic swimming, massage, exercise therapy, hirudotherapy (medical treatment with leeches).

Sanitary-resort treatment patients are advised to relax on the Alpine resorts and spas near the natural karstic caves (salt caves).