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Polio

  1. Polio and its symptoms
  2. Causes of Contracting polio
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Polio

called a disease of viral nature, which is possible after the development of paralysis, as in times of illness is a disruption of the tissues of the nervous system, in parallel, there is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and intestines. The cause of the illness is a virus of the genus picornaviruses. We recover human remains steady immunity.

Polio and its symptoms

The symptoms of some types of diseases are

  • nephrolithiasis polio acute intoxication (poisoning), fever up to 38.5 C, a headache, weakness, early signs of ARI (cough, tickle in the throat, runny nose), aches (pain and attacks in the abdomen, diarrhea). This kind of disease occurs in a simple manner and is completed within 3 -7 days
  • during the meningeal phase begins to increase the temperature to 38-39 C, reduced in a few days, gradually begins to rise, symptoms of the common cold (cough, runny nose) begin to marvel at the nerve endings, increased drowsiness, develops headache, increased vomiting quickly develop meningeal symptoms increases the rigidity of the back of the head. If the patient is lying on his back, he can’t touch his chin to his chest, as the muscles are in a strong tone. Observed symptom Kernig, discover you, the patient, lying on back, bend knee and joint in the thigh at a right angle, and then trying to align the patient to pull her can not
  • paralytic poliomyelitis associated symptoms are divided into 4 periods of the disease preparations, paralytic, restorative and residual. You should allocate preparations the symptoms of a fairly high temperature to 39-40C General malaise of the body, the weakness the development of severe pain in the head painful sensations in the larynx for several days, the body temperature decreases and stabiliziruemost, then again comes a General deterioration of the patient. Then rises a second wave, the temperature reaches 40C it is observed the development of headaches, pain in the muscles of the arms, legs, back, becomes noticeable muscle twitching and the patient’s consciousness disappears intermittently. This period lasts up to 4-5 days
  • next comes the development of paralytic period lasts from 1 to 2 weeks.

With the development of polio are such common symptoms develop sudden signs of paralysis (the inability of the active movements of the muscles) often seen in the legs sometimes development starts with immobilization of neck and entire body, accompanied by sudden pain in the muscles, but the sensitivity in the tissues is not lost. Paralysis may be exposed and the internal organs paralyzed diaphragm, and respiratory muscles, it may cause improper blood circulation and breathing has stopped.

For the recovery period is characterized by the activity begins to return to the sore muscles, but later, the rate of recovery is substantially slowed, and the rehabilitation period may be delayed up to 3 years.

At the end of the disease (residual) characteristic

  • actively there is atrophy of muscles (muscle decrease in size)
  • the torso, arms and legs can become deformed.

Development period the incubation period can last 35 days, the usual course of the disease from 7 to 12 days.

Causes of Contracting polio

The causes of the disease can be

  • the causative agent of viral infection hits with secretions or infected mucus
  • you can become infected only by direct contact with a sick person or a virus carrier
  • the causative agent of virus is transmitted in compliance with the elementary rules of hygiene or by airborne droplets.

Diagnosis

To determine the nature of the disease to be advised of such data

  • have there been any epidemiological examination of the patient (data is collected about close friends, whether the vaccination the patient and his relatives polio
  • there was a General examination of the patient (temperature measurement and observation of motor movements)
  • there is a General analysis of blood and determine the level of antibodies to this disease
  • investigated the cerebrospinal fluid had there been an increase in the number of lymphocytes.

After research, it is necessary to consult the infectious diseases specialist and a neurologist.

Treatment

Specific treatment of polio there. In case of occurrence of the disease resort to the following measures

  • urgent hospitalization
  • strict physical and mental rest
  • the appointment of painkillers and diuretics
  • in severe symptoms (respiratory failure) performed mechanical ventilation of the lungs if disturbed swallowing function of the patient fed through a tube
  • individually prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs
  • for the treatment preparational stage is assigned to the immunoglobulin.

In the recovery interval used

  • Physical therapy, massage
  • intake of vitamin preparations of group 12, B6
  • course thisprocedure
  • after removing the syndromes shown sanatorium treatment.

Complications

Even a mild form of the disease can cause a series of complications and response to polio may be

  • disturbed respiratory function
  • disrupted the digestive tract
  • the polio vaccine may contain strains of the virus to be the causative agent of the disease. Signs of vaccine-associated polio are experience mild paralysis or slight limitation in the movement after 2 months, manifested by muscle atrophy
  • the blood analysis shows increase in antibodies in more than 4 times.

Preventive measures

Currently conducting preventive measures to prevent developed polio in children.

Stages of preventive measures

  • at 3 and 4.5 months kids the vaccine is an inactivated vaccine
  • in six months the child is third vaccination, but with a live vaccine
  • 1.5 year old is vaccination from polio. Babies with congenital abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract and the immune deficiency is introduced inactivated vaccine at all stages of vaccination, the frequency of vaccination corresponds to the same period of healthy children
  • 20 months and 14 years is held the second and third vaccination with a live vaccine.

To ensure that polio is not visualising complications, in the room where previously were ill, is quarantined. Duration at least 3 weeks.