- Causes of pneumococcal meningitis
- The symptoms of the disease
- Treatment of pneumococcal meningitis
- The consequences of the transfer of the disease
Pneumococcal meningitis is an infectious inflammation of the meninges and spinal cord.
The disease is provoked in the organism by the streptococcal bacteria group, Streptococcus pneumoniae. The prevalence of this disease is fairly insignificant, however, the disease can easily spread from person to person and can cause epidemics among the population. Can also occur in children.
This type of disease has its own characteristics of occurrence (causes), symptoms, manifestations and methods of treatment, different from other forms of meningitis. This will be discussed in this article.
Causes of pneumococcal meningitis
There are a number of reasons why this disease can affect each patient. These include the condition and age of the patient, as well as the external causative agents of disease.
Usually, the external causative agents include various microorganisms-causative agents of disease. These include viruses, bacteria, and sometimes fungus. However, as mentioned above, in the case of pneumococcal meningitis, the role of the pathogen play a harmful bacteria streptococcal group.
Passed this type of meningitis, like any infectious disease, the traditional, air-borne or food by. This happens normally in contact with a carrier of the infection through a handshake, a kiss, sneezing or shared utensils and household items, which, by itself, suggests the need for strict observance of rules of personal hygiene.
The penetration of bacteria of the Streptococcus in the body the infection process and disease development does not end there. Moreover, after the transfer took place of the infection, there are two versions of events meningitis and its absence.
The fact that the development of the disease, we need the appropriate conditions. In the case of meningitis, a weakened immune system and permit the body’s response. Only when these additional factors harmful bacteria-pathogens penetrate into the bloodstream and transported to the brain. Therefore, in the presence of chronic diseases, bad habits or course of therapies affecting the immune system, the chance of getting meningitis increases significantly. This also explains the fact that pneumococcal meningitis is often seen in children.
The symptoms of the disease
The first thing to understand after contact with a sick person is that the symptoms of diseases such as pneumococcal meningitis, do not manifest immediately. The incubation period of this disease may vary depending on the age and health of the patient, but usually lasts from one to fourteen days. And already after a certain period of time, the disease will begin to show their first signs.
In the case of manifestation of meningitis may experience a range of symptoms common to all infectious diseases, as well as specific features, peculiar only to this disease. General set of symptoms of the disease include
- a significant increase in temperature
- chills and muscle twitching
- strong throbbing headache
- can occur inflammation of the upper respiratory tract
- painful perception of acoustic and visual stimuli
- nausea and profuse vomiting
- strong reduction or complete lack of appetite.
As for the second group of symptoms of pneumococcal meningitis, they include the so-called symptom Kernig and Brudzinskogo. This is the most likely markers to determine that the patient is developing meningitis.
The essence of the Kernig symptom is that the patient is in a horizontal position should be raised to 90? straight, not bent at the knee leg. If this fails, the disease is confirmed.
And in order to more accurately determine the disease, the symptom is used Brudzinskogo, which according to several indicators defines the disease. So, the disease is confirmed if
- the patient can not rest my head to his chest
- when tapping the zygomatic arch is observed an involuntary flexion of the legs at the knees
- uncontrolled, the patient raises shoulders by pressing the cheek
- with pressure on the pubic area, legs bent in the knee joint
- when you try to bend one leg at the knee, the second also, involuntarily, bent.
Treatment of pneumococcal meningitis
Treatment of pneumococcal meningitis is carried out only in stationary surveillance experts. To troubleshoot the cause of the disease, since this kind of relates to the bacterial form, as medicines, are appointed Antibacterials. As harmful bacteria may still be in the blood, the required broad-spectrum antibiotics. They are introduced into the body of the patient intravenously to provide rapid impact, or by injection into the spinal canal.
In addition to the antibiotics, usually appointed drugs to combat the symptoms of the disease. It can be antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and other drugs.
The consequences of the transfer of the disease
The consequences of the disease such as pneumococcal meningitis, usually, are catastrophic and irreversible, for the health of the patient, the nature. As one of the most dangerous of them is cerebral edema, upon the occurrence of which the patient may fall into a deep coma, or, in case of untimely medical assistance to die, resulting in paralysis of the respiratory organs (pulmonary edema).
In addition, meningitis can have a serious impact on mental health and the nervous system of the body. The result of the transfer of the disease may develop dropsy, heart disease and kidney failure.
Therefore, in case of the slightest suspicion on the development of the disease, you should immediately consult a doctor. Then there will be a real opportunity to get rid of the disease quickly, and without dangerous consequences.