the process of growth of bone tissue of the ear, which is pathological. The growth occurs in the region of the temporal bone at the location of the inner ear or the auditory ossicles. In most cases the disease causes abnormalities in the mobility of the stapes, called the stirrup. The consequence of such deviations is to reduce the level of hearing, which may develop before acquiring deafness.
The main symptoms of otosclerosis are
- progress of hearing loss, which often enough is of a bilateral nature
- symptom Willise, namely, that speech perception, which develops otosclerosis, better in noisy environments than in quiet
- symptom Toynbee, in which in the case of the simultaneous conversation of a few people it is perceived inaudible.
In addition, the symptoms of otosclerosis include the occurrence of tinnitus, in some cases, noises in the head, a sense of ear pressure and gravity, poor understanding of speech during swallowing or chewing. In some cases, the symptoms of add dizziness and abnormalities in sense of balance.
Otosclerosis may develop in two forms primary and secondary.
In primary otosclerosis the process of growth of bone tissues not associated with systemic diseases of connective tissue type. Localization of the growth region of the auditory labyrinth. In some cases, may engage the stapes.
The secondary form of the disease is characterized by the fact that its development is based on the systemic pathological processes of the connective tissue, for example, Hurler’s.
Otosclerosis ear can occur due to many reasons and risk factors. The nature of the development of pathogenic process allows to distinguish the following reasons
- the predisposition of a genetic nature. To date, specialists have not been able to pinpoint the location of the gene, which mutations may trigger the development of otosclerosis
- endocrine problems that have led to deviations in hormonal levels of a person. Data disease processes can affect the thyroid, pancreas or other glands of the human body
- the restructuring process of the temporal bone, manifesting itself by decreasing the elasticity of the muscles responsible for the management of auditory bones. This process occurs under the influence of the noise processes of the environment. Most strongly influenced by the ultrasound
- pathogenic processes of infectious and inflammatory nature, affecting the average or internal ear of man.
In addition, the disease in a larger number of cases are diagnosed in women. The frequency of cases of the disease in women is approximately two times greater than that of males.
For proper diagnosis of otosclerosis specialists apply the following diagnostic methods and measures
- analysis of complaints and anamnesis of disease. During these events establishes the presence and duration of reduction in the level of hearing, tinnitus, feeling of heaviness and pressure in the ears
- implementation testing of hearing using tuning fork
- research method audiometry, in which are set a hearing impairment by periodically beeps increasing the height of the person who is in the headphones. The results of the reaction of the patient is constructed corresponding to an audiogram. With the development of otosclerosis audiogram to determine the presence of obvious signs of hearing impairment, based on air conduction, based on the chain of auditory ossicles, bone conduction, which is the basis for the perception of the sound signal by the auditory receptors of the inner ear
- implementation of tympanometry, during which sets the level of mobility of the ear drum of the patient. Also, the use of this measure allows to set the pressure level in the ear of the person. In case of suspicion on the progress of otosclerosis, this method is carried out to exclude other pathological processes
- the provision of consulting services to hearing healthcare and surgeons.
The main therapeutic measure in the development of otosclerosis is an ear operation. The result of the surgery is to restore mobility of the ossicular chain of a patient.
If pathogenic processes affected both ears in the first place, a surgical intervention is performed on that ear, the hearing on which below. The second ear to operate no earlier than 6 months after the first operation in the absence of complications.
Surgery for otosclerosis is carried out in the following versions
- stapedectomy remove the stapes and replace the remote part of the ear prosthesis. This type of operational measures is dangerous for the patient because it can compromise the integrity of the oval window, which connects the middle and inner ear of the patient
- stapedotomy the method of surgery with a high level of security. This operation is the removal of the stapes. A denture is replaced by a exceptionally remote part of the body.
Treatment with surgical measures in most cases is carried out using anesthesia local character. This is motivated by the fact that the patient, being conscious, can adequately assess your level of hearing. Sometimes General anesthesia is used. The operation occurs in the ear canal, and for the implementation of an operation used tools miniature size and microscopes operating purposes.
Surgical intervention requires a high level of professional training, since the place of operation is localized in close proximity with many agencies and bodies of high importance, for example, the facial nerve.