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Occlusive disease

  1. Reasons
  2. Diagnosis
  3. Symptoms
  4. Treatment


Occlusive disease

it is a severe disease which is associated with lesions of the arteries and capillaries of the lower extremities of a person. The disease is very dangerous, as developing occlusive disease of the lower extremities leads to a progressive disorder of circulation of blood in the legs, especially the feet. This means that the amount of incoming nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the lower extremities are increasingly deviates from the norm, that is becoming less. If not timely treatment of this disease, is the death of tissue stop the development of gangrene. As a result the person can amputate one or two feet.

Reasons

The exact reasons for the development of obliterative endarteritis of unknown medicine, but the mechanism of development of a disease such as endarteritis of the lower extremities, physicians have long understood. First, a person has narrowing of the capillaries of the feet, whereby the lumen of the vessel narrows even more, this process can complete a full blockage of a vessel by a blood clot.

It is also believed that autoimmune processes play a crucial role in the development of the disease. For unknown reasons, the body begins to produce antibodies against the cells of blood vessels of the body.

Obliterating endarteritis of lower extremities vessels may develop due to

  • alcohol
  • prolonged stress
  • common hypothermia of the extremities
  • wearing shoes, causing inconvenience
  • various leg injuries
  • infections
  • large amount of fatty food in the diet.

The legs of the smoker is also ideal for this disease, as occlusive disease of lower limb arteries.

Also the occlusive disease, the causes of which are described above, is more common in men than in women. While men most often acquire the disease in young or middle-aged.

Diagnosis

For the definition of obliterating endarteritis diagnosis is made with ultrasound, is also used of the study of vessels of lower extremities arterial angiography.

However, occlusive disease often has characteristic symptoms, because often the doctor is easily able to establish the diagnosis.

Symptoms

Signs of obliterating endarteritis is quite distinctive. Patients may complain that they quickly the feeling of fatigue, and when walking they feel heaviness in the legs. Typical is numbness of the feet, quite often shows a feeling as if the skin crawling chills. When disease is observed chills and sweating stop. Patients with endarteritis feet are often cold, this is especially felt in cold weather, the legs in such cases are cold to the pain. Also one of the symptoms are cramps in the lower extremities.

However, there is a main complaint common to all patients with obliterating endarteritis is a sudden severe pain in the calf muscles, which many describe as a sharp stab. When the patient is simply unable to move, he has to wait patiently until the pain passes. This symptom has received the name of intermittent claudication, and it is found only in this disease.

There are other external signs of disease. When the disease is just beginning to develop, the skin in affected areas becomes a pale shade, may become cyanotic, and also changes the temperature of the lower limbs, and feet to the touch are cold. The pulse is markedly diminished in the vessels of the feet, in the future, he’s almost palpable. In very advanced cases, patients on the toes and the feet appear ulcers that do not heal, and foci of tissue necrosis, and later almost all signs of gangrene.

Stage

The disease has four stages of development. The first stage is called ischemic because it is associated with the fact that in the lower extremities worsens the blood supply. For ischemic stage is characterized by a sensation of crawling on skin tingling, severe fatigue in the legs during movement, chilly sensations in the legs, cramps in the calf muscles. The foot is cold and pale, but arterial pulse in the feet is still possible to determine.

The second stage is called the stage of trophic disorders, that is, stage of eating disorder tissues of the lower extremities. At this stage increase the discomfort that was present in the first stage, as well as severe pain occurs during walking. It is at this stage appears a symptom called intermittent claudication. With all this pain begins to be felt not only when walking but also when the patient is at rest.

The pain is localized in the toes, calf muscles and soles. If the first stage of the disease of the foot was pale, the second quite evident cyanosis. The skin becomes dry, it resembles parchment. Nail growth on the toes slowed down markedly, and the nails are subjected to deformation processes. On the feet and hair.

The third stage of the disease-called ulcerative-necrotic. The patient can hardly move, the pain in his feet almost do not leave. The pain increases when the person is in a horizontal position, because the patient is experiencing torment and during sleep. Legs in the third stage, noticeably lose weight. Ulcers are formed on the toes.

The fourth stage of the disease is gangrenous, at this stage, the patient develops gangrene on the feet. The gangrene in this case can be either dry or wet. If the patient develops dry gangrene, the tissue fingers or tissue whole foot gradually die, vassilas. Gangrene of the affected tissues blacken, undergo a process of deformation and compacted. If the patient develops wet gangrene of the foot becomes swollen, becomes bloated. There is a disintegration of tissue, with the formation of toxic substances that poison the body, entering the blood. In the case of the fourth stage of life of the patient will be able to save only the amputation of the injured limb.

Treatment

The danger of obliterating endarteritis is that modern medicine has no means in order to completely cure the disease. The medics only to slow the progression of this disease by increasing the duration of periods of remission. Thus, facilitated by the patient’s condition. Also, doctors try to prevent the development of gangrene this is achieved by the timely appointment of an experienced physician individual complex treatment of the disease.

The main goal of treatment of the disease to relieve pain, and eliminate spasms in the blood vessels and to eliminate the disorder in the nervous system. Complex treatment of obliterating endarteritis embodies and physiotherapy, and pharmacological methods, in extreme cases, is surgery.

Medication is medication that can reduce spasms in the blood vessels and increase their lumen. Among these drugs are anti spasms, adrenal cortex hormones, drugs against blood clot formation, vitamins E, C, PP and b, means that slow blood clotting.

Physiotherapy treatment includes

  • various heat treatments, the heating of the lower back using UHF, currents Bernard, sauna, ozokerite applications
  • the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation treatment using hyperbaric chambers, and places the injured limb. In the chamber it is affected by low and high pressure alternately
  • the magnetotherapy treatment is carried out using high frequency magnetic fields
  • electrophoresis of medicinal preparations are injected in the affected area of the body under the influence of an electric field
  • ultrasonic treatment
  • hydrotherapy hot baths, mustard baths, contrast baths, turpentine baths of white.

Treatment of obliterating endarteritis may be conducted only under the supervision of a specialized therapist. Self-medication of this disease can lead to serious consequences, the disease when medication can be accelerated.