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Nystagmus

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Nystagmus

called severe oculomotor disorders, with involuntary pendulum movements of the eyes and lack of a fixed sight.

Types

Time-dependent appearance

  • acquired nystagmus resulting from such causes as loss of vision, toxic poisoning, pathology of the CNS
  • congenital nystagmus, accompanied by mild manifestations with abnormal position of the head. Nystagmus in children occurs after 23 months of life and persists for the entire life cycle.

Depending on the cause distinguish

  • nystagmus is pathological, as the result of disease of the vestibular apparatus or in the brain
  • physiological nystagmus in turn divided into vestibular nystagmus, associated with exposure to the inner part of the ear, and optogenetics, coming at a very fast flickering of objects before the eyes (for example, by observing the objects from the window of the car or train). Only this type is normal and inherent in all people.

Dependent on the direction

  • rotational, accompanied by a simultaneous circular motion of the eyes
  • horizontal nystagmus, with the movements of the oscillatory nature of the horizontal. Sometimes levocarnitine nystagmus.
  • vertical nystagmus with the movements of the oscillatory nature of the vertical.

There are also professional nystagmus that occurs as a result of years of work in the mine. Negative factors, influencing the person, is strong enough eye strain during work, poor lighting and ventilation of mines, the possible toxicity of the gases carbon monoxide, methane.

Depending on the strength of the severity of

  • nystagmus of the first degree, when at rest, symptoms occur in the fast phase in the abduction of the eyes in an extreme situation
  • nystagmus II degree, emerging in the center position of the eyeball
  • nystagmus III degree, occurs in the slow phase when the eyes to the side.

Reasons

Almost always spontaneous nystagmus develops because of diseases in different areas of the brain responsible for movement and coordination of eyes (tumors, stroke). Also diseases cause malformations of the skull, traumatic brain injury, various eye diseases (optic nerve atrophy, retinal dystrophy, albinism). Also called poisoning potent medical drugs, particularly sedative or narcotic substances. Possible hereditary factor causing congenital form of nystagmus.

Symptoms

A person who knows about the presence of nystagmus, will still feel the symptoms dizziness, feeling of spinning around the world and unusual wavering of surrounding objects. In connection with the impossibility of fixing the sight, nausea, loss of coordination, double vision. Reduced muscle tone and the hearing (sometimes in one ear).

Diagnosis

When referring a patient for help to the doctor in the first place is going to the history of the disease. Here it is important to establish, when the nystagmus, whether it is from birth or was acquired as a result of injury or disease. Assigned to neurological examination, which assesses the severity and direction of nystagmus. The doctor analyzes patient complaints, the presence of nausea, dizziness, strabismus. Analyzes blood for signs of poisoning medications. Examines visual acuity with and without glasses, in the literal and the forced position of the head. The situation can clarify electronystagmography, CT and magnetic resonance imaging to detect brain disease. Sometimes assigned to the examination of the patient by a neurosurgeon and
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Treatment

Nystagmus, treatment of which is therapy of the underlying disease, involves the total elimination of its causes. This work is time-consuming and difficult, requiring the intervention of many specialists, and all activities are aimed at improving visual acuity, lowering intraocular pressure, promote metabolism. A thorough vision correction using glasses and lenses. If the patient has degeneration of the retina, there is a partial atrophy of the optic nerve, albinism recommended treatment filters that increase visual acuity. They can be neutral, brown, yellow, orange and have the density at which maximum visual acuity.

The negative effects of nystagmus is the reduction of accommodation of vision and amblyopia. In such cases is pleoptic treatment and exercises for training accommodation. On monobinoscope doctor performs highlights through a red filter that selectively stimulate the Central zone of the retina. Also, a decrease in amplitude of nystagmus and improve visual acuity binocular promote exercise and diploptic treatment.

Drug treatment involves medications to improve nutrition of eye tissues, the retina (vitamins, drugs to expand the blood vessels) and the brain power (benzodiazepines, barbiturates). In the presence of an infectious inflammation of the inner ear and prescribed appropriate antibiotics.

Surgery reduce oscillatory movement of the eyes. If there is a tumor of the membranes of the vestibular nerve shows its removal. If you are diagnosed by doctors jerky nystagmus, when involuntary head turning with the reduction of nystagmus ‘ amplitude (quiet zone) and improvement of visual acuity in this position is a surgical procedure which transferred the zone of silence in the middle position. For this purpose weaken the stronger muscle and strengthen the weaker. The result is a straightening of the head position, visual acuity increases, the nystagmus decreases.