today is one of the biggest social problems on the planet. Bad habit not only destroys the health of smokers but also cause discomfort to non-Smoking people. About half are dependent on nicotine to minors, and considering the fact that one in ten people on Earth dying from diseases that were provoked by tobacco Smoking, it means that 250 million children and adolescents die because of this bad habit.
Every year on the planet dies five and a half million people for the same reason. According to forecasts closer to the thirties of the twentieth century, this figure will increase by 33%. Most often, people die from Smoking in developing economies.
One cigarette takes away from the normal life expectancy of a person fourteen minutes. This implies that dependent on the nicotine lives less than five to seven years. Lethal dose of nicotine 94 cigarettes.
A bad habit can provoke such diseases
, infertility, reduced immunity, and in pregnancy increases the risks of abnormal development and fetal death.
By itself, nicotine is harmless in small doses. Adversely affect the body other components that are part of the cigarette, especially tar. When burned they emit toxic substances.
During Smoking, nicotine enters the body through the respiratory tract and mucous membranes. As it is a biologically active substance that causes irritation of the nerve cells and through nerve impulses send signals throughout the body. Thus, during Smoking changes your heart rate and breathing. Also nicotine affects the muscles and brain cells.
By ingestion of nicotine in the human body every time the number of receptors in it increases, and nicotine dose on the next time, respectively, must also increase. Reasons for Smoking are the more a person smokes, the greater the dependence on nicotine.
The human body by nature is unable to perceive nicotine as something familiar to him, so he comes out from the body like any other poison, in a natural way of removing toxins from the body. Because of this, after a short period of time the person begins to nicotine withdrawal and lights again, and the organism again removes unwanted substances. And so the circle. This process of nicotine dependence.
Tobacco dependence has a lot in common with drug addiction. However Smoking is not illegal due to the fact that it is not hallucinogenic and doesn’t affect the ability to drive the smoker remains adequate and does not cause harm to others. But tobacco addiction can cause somatics, like the breaking of an addict. This condition is called a syndrome.
The normal human body, including all organs and the functions they perform fully come back to normal and no nicotine. Therefore, it is believed that nicotine addiction is not fixed at the physiological level, not a mental one. A person can not be considered its normal condition properly while not smoke a cigarette. And then, as it seems, he feels better. The majority of smokers feel the need to smoke in certain places, where they had to smoke before.
We have identified three stages of nicotine addiction
- the first stage. Appears after two or three years from the beginning of Smoking. Begins rare (from one to ten) cigarette consumption in everyday life, with pronounced intoxication. During Smoking a person coughs, he’s dizzy and a little nauseated. Then a person begins to smoke about five cigarettes a day for two to three years. Gradually the number of cigarettes increased to twenty. Psychological dependence is strengthened. When Smoking intoxication is not observed. So a person can live for about seven years
- the second stage. About twenty people can stay at this stage, the characteristic of which is a persistent cough, hypertensive. Physical reactions to nicotine seem natural, cigarette in his life, a man can not even imagine
- the third stage. Receptors not working properly, the body’s response to nicotine lead to depression. The process of Smoking takes the first place, not the use of nicotine. Dependent smokes at night (wakes up in order to smoke). The nervous system is irritated, if even a very short time of not Smoking. The normal operation of the organism and all the processes are broken.
To diagnose nicotine dependence, it is enough to obtain positive answers to simple questions
- if there is a withdrawal syndrome (deterioration of the body during the termination of use)
- does irritability when people have not smoked
- do you regularly smoke, and can control the process
- was unsuccessful attempts to quit or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day
- does the harm and effects of Smoking when you continue to smoke.
Treatment of dependence on Smoking begins with determination of the stage of nicotine dependence using the test developed by Fagerstrom dimension based on points (one to ten). When a person decides to undergo treatment of nicotine addiction, then it becomes known how easily he succeeds.
Treatment is carried out in two stages. First by artificial means form a necessary amount of nicotine in the blood (with nicotinamidase). And gradually the dose is reduced to zero. This treatment may take three to six months. For each person, this individual strings.
The easiest way to get rid of bad habits at the first stage. In addition nicotinamidase (nicotine gum, sprays, patches) utilize psychotherapy. At other stages pharmacology are used more intensively.
Drugs for tobacco dependence are of two types that contain nicotine, and that it is replaced. Nicotinamidase pills affect the body like nicotine. At this time, the person wean from Smoking process. Pills give a feeling of overabundance of nicotine and no longer want to smoke.
The most effective medication for tobacco dependence, Champix is one of the drugs that does not contain nicotine, it works as an antidepressant, creates a psychological comfort while quitting Smoking, returning the receptors to their normal state.
Prevention of Smoking is to inform children and Teens that Smoking is injurious to health, and to make the habit is not popular in society. The state restricts the advertising of tobacco products, prohibits sale to minors, informs teenagers in schools about the dangers of Smoking and enforces a number of other activities at the state level.