this is an infectious disease that can be classified as chronic. The causative agent of this disease are bacteria of the Mycoplasma. These bacteria have the smallest sizes of all studied, do not have cell walls, which in turn limits the possibility of their detection and recognition under different laboratory methods. The lack of the cell wall should be considered when prescribing. Within certain limits, Mycoplasma they are not harmful and can be representative of healthy flora.
You know more than 16 different species of Mycoplasma, for which the human body normal habitat. Ten of them are in the oral cavity, and six on the mucous membranes of the genitals and urinary system. Some of them
- ycoplasma hominis, genitalium ycoplasma is the most studied species of bacteria
- Ureaplasma urealyticum ureaplasmosis pathogens
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma penetrans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma amphoriforme
- Mycoplasma primatum, Mycoplasma spermatophilum interesting only from a scientific point of view. At the moment, poorly studied.
These pathogens cause disease mycoplasmosis, the reasons for which are in active development and reproduction of the bacteria.
Usually the more aggressive behavior of Mycoplasma occurs when the adverse effects of the external environment, which leads to weakening of the protective functions of the immune system.
Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis involves several stages. It depends on what kind of pathogen caused the disease. When infected by Ureaplasma urealyticum can occur urogenital mycoplasmosis, treatment which should do the urologist or the venereologist. When infected by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae acute respiratory disease or perhaps pneumonia. Accordingly, a specialist who will diagnose and treatment of mycoplasmosis TB doctor or therapist.
However, there are a number of necessary methods of diagnostics, which is useful when disease of any of the types of mycoplasmosis.
First you must create the history and clinical picture, based on the assessment of complaints, lifestyle-related causes manifestation of the disease.
Laboratory studies should include analysis of PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The material sputum or a swab of the affected area (organ).
Also for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infections using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct immunofluorescence. The accuracy of this study ranges from 50 % to 70 %.
Mycoplasma infections, symptoms of which may be different in connection with a variety of types of this bacteria, cannot be identified without laboratory diagnosis.
Signs of mycoplasmosis often do not manifest themselves and have absolutely no effect on the quality of life of the host. But under certain influences can occur a number of diseases treated will be necessary. Depending on the species of Mycoplasma can cause various diseases. Among them include
- surgical wound infection
- infectious arthritis, etc.
Therefore, early diagnosis is necessary if you suspect the possibility of infection with Mycoplasma.
Mycoplasmosis in men and women is in the incubation period from several days to two months. A long period of time do not show any symptoms. One of the main thing you should pay attention to the appearance of a transparent discharge from the urethra, discomfort, and possibly pain during sexual intercourse and when urinating, the outer urethra assumes a reddish color. It may cause itching. If there is no adequate treatment, there are complications, which are expressed by pain in the scrotum and perineum, in the lumbar spine and in the rectum. Possible skin rash. Mycoplasma in men may cause inflammation of the urethra and development of urethritis, in the future, to acute or chronic pyelonephritis. Disrupted the whole of the genitourinary system that may affect the reproductive functions of the body.
Mycoplasmosis in women as in men, a long time can not be. Characterized by the fact that statistics about the most frequent manifestation of the disease in women compared with men. The possibility of infection mainly during intercourse. But you can get it from towels, linens, gynecological tool and so this explains the cases of girls the bacterium Mycoplasma hominis, who have never had sexual intercourse. According to statistics, such cases from 8% to 17%.
If the bacterium Mycoplasma struck only the outer genitals, it is usually no sensation occurs. Except that sometimes an itch of external genitals and a slight colorless discharge. Accordingly, the patient does not contact a gynecologist. Mycoplasmosis, under favourable conditions bacteria will go into a chronic form of the disease and indefinitely may not show any symptoms. But during the lowering of the immune system and worsen chronic diseases. Itching of the external genitalia proceeds in burning, the amount of discharge is greatly increased. As a rule, then, the woman turns to the specialist.
In the case of the code of Mycoplasma bacteria struck the internal sex organs, women experience burning and itching during urination, unusual selection in a sufficiently large amount, often the regular nagging pain in the lower abdomen or lumbar. This is accompanied by menstrual irregularities, weakness, possible fever.
Respiratory mycoplasmosis or primary atypical pneumonia, infectious disease of the respiratory system. Is an infection transmitted by airborne droplets, in which the causative agent is Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Most often this disease occurs in children over the age of five. The incubation period of the disease varies from five days to one month. The symptoms are identical to acute respiratory infections with potential complications. These include fever, runny nose, cough (often dry, exhausting), pain or sore throat, pain in the joints, disorder of the functioning of the digestive tract. In the lungs is determined by the hard breathing with nonspecific rales. To identify the causative agent only possible with the help of laboratory diagnosis. To do this, use the sputum in the content of the nasopharynx by PCR. Also recommended to consult a pulmonologist and infectious disease.
As a rule, the disease is transmitted sexually. Household infection with Mycoplasma is virtually impossible.
The incubation period can last on average from a few days to two months.
Special danger of disease lies in long-term asymptomatic. Possible transmission media sexually. The complication may manifest itself in the violation of the reproductive functions of the female organism. That is why the disease is often detected at the time of examination, which is called infertility problem or after ineffectual attempts to bear fruit.
Mycoplasma infections during pregnancy are very dangerous. Its effects can be miscarriage, premature birth, early discharge of amniotic fluid. During birth can become infected by the child, and mothers may begin fever. Despite the fact that urogenital Mycoplasma infections are sexually transmitted, the child may become infected in the womb or during childbirth, when the mother is a carrier of the disease. Then you need to go to therapy for mother and child.
Treatment of mycoplasmosis in children is most often symptomatic. In cases where the child is weak or increased probability of recurrence, it is recommended to take a course of appropriate therapy, using antibiotics to which sensitive germs.