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Myasthenia gravis

  1. Symptoms
  2. Diagnosis
  3. Treatment


Myasthenia gravis

it is a disease characterized by abnormalities associated with severe fatigue and muscle weakness that occur with repeated contractions of the muscle tissue. Myasthenia gravis can be acquired as well as congenital disorders. The cause of this disease is a gene mutation different proteins, which are responsible for the structure, functionality and performance of the neuromuscular synapse. The mechanisms of the development of the disease involves autoimmune processes, which result in detectable antibodies in muscle tissue and in the thymus (thymus).

Most common lesion of the eyelid muscle, the appearance of ptosis that can vary in different degrees of severity during the day, may also be affected masticatory muscles, disrupt the swallowing process and to change gait. For patients with myasthenia gravis harmful different stresses as they cause the stimulation of the nervous system, and along with this shortness of breath and chest pain.


Symptoms

With the disease myasthenia gravis, the symptoms are pronounced. This disease the patient complains of fatigue associated with different muscle groups, and it is a weakness (in the limbs, neck, torso), which appears and increases with repeated movements, but after the people rested, and his muscles relaxed, she can go. Because of this particular symptom and is not called weakness, and fatigue, because this fact indicates that this disorder may develop rapidly, and are not present from the beginning (before was performed motion).

Patients there are complaints of double vision, which in medical terminology is called diplopia. It occurs due to the increase in fatigability of the outer eye muscles and could increase when eye movements are often repeated or in the evening. In addition, in a patient suffering from myasthenia gravis, there is drooping of the upper eyelids, which also appears in the evening, and occurs because of fatigue of the muscle which raises the upper eyelid. Possible reduced clarity of vision, that is connected with fatigue of the internal muscles of the eye.

Frequent are the complaints and difficulty swallowing that occurs because of fatigue of the muscles of the pharynx, what caused the unclear pronunciation of words and twang voice.

If tired midwivery muscle of the chest, the patient is disturbed breathing process. In addition, possible pathology in the functionality of the autonomic nervous system, which ensures the efficiency of the heart and gastrointestinal tract, due to which the patient will experience rapid heartbeat and a tendency to loose stools or constipation.


Types

In medicine there are different forms of myasthenia gravis that were defined depending on two factors of the patient’s age and localization of the disease. So, the first factor occur in the following forms

  • children myasthenia that develops in infancy. It can be congenital, when increased muscular fatigue is already apparent from the period of birth. In this case, the child will be reluctant to take the breast of the mother, and these children are usually sedentary
  • early children, when the disease develops during early childhood (25 years)
  • juvenile myasthenia gravis occurs when the teenager reaches 1216 years
  • the adult, when the disease first signs is increased muscle fatigue, starting at the age when the body already formed.

Depending on the second factor, namely the localization of the disease, when the muscle fatigue is manifested in specific areas of the muscle groups, define the following types

  • ocular myasthenia, or oftalmologicheskiy the patient’s complaints are double vision images in the eyes, drooping upper eyelid and blurry vision
  • pharyngeal-facial form, the predominance of complaints on the inability to swallow when eating, and difficulty in pronunciation of words
  • skeletal muscle muscle fatigue is most strongly expressed in a specific muscle group, for example, only in the legs or in the hands.

The disease myasthenia gravis, the causes of which are rooted in autoimmune processes, can take years, but sometimes remission.

Diagnosis

To identify the causes of the disease, and to determine its type, the patient to be examined by a neurologist who will do proteinosis test administration of neostigmine to assess muscle strength. Diagnosis of myasthenia gravis at the initial stage can also be carried out by a physician. It can limit physical activity, sun exposure and supplementation based on magnesium, antibiotics and diuretics in order to prevent the disease myasthenia gravis, because of possible complications in the form of uniform fatigue all muscle groups, which is typical of yet another form of the disease, referred to as generalized myasthenia gravis.

Treatment

People diagnosed with myasthenia gravis, treatment which is carried out by a neurologist, should not delay with the detected symptoms and immediately go to the hospital because of the disease, there are complications. So, in order to avoid other pathologies on the background of this disease, doctors prescribe drugs, namely drugs based on potassium, which improve sacramenot muscle and conduction of nerve impulses from nerve to muscle. You can receive anticholinesterase drugs, oppressive work anticholinesterase enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine accumulates in the joints of the nerve to the muscles, resulting in muscle fatigue is suppressed. In most cases, the therapy of myasthenia gravis, these drugs is the main form of treatment.

Some neurologists prescribe hormonal medications to reduce the severity of autoimmune processes against their acetycholine receptors, and thus also reduce the number of antibodies.

Apart from drug therapy there are other methods. So, myasthenia gravis treated with plasmapheresis both manipulations, the essence of which is to cleanse the blood of antibodies. For carrying equipment the patient take turns picking several portions of blood, from which plasma is separated using a centrifuge, while maintaining blood cells. After this procedure into the mainstream circulation return saved corpuscles in conjunction with plasma substitutes.

In addition to the above techniques, it is sometimes possible surgical procedure that removes the thymus (thymus). But this manipulation is shown in progressive movements of infants, and the presence of tumors of the gland and in the case when the disease process involved and the muscles of the pharynx, so as not to disturb the act of swallowing.