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Multiple myeloma

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Multiple myeloma

malignant (which is increasing damage to surrounding tissue) proliferation of plasma cells. These cells are a special type of white blood cells that have matured to the stage where they can produce immunoglobulin proteins that are used in the protective reactions of the organism. Multiple myeloma is a variant of chronic leukemia.

Form

Clinical-anatomical classification assumes division into the following forms

  • diffuse focal (affected bone marrow. This increases swelling)
  • the diffuse form of multiple myeloma (affects bone marrow)
  • multiple-focal (tumor observed in different parts of the body, the bone marrow is not available).

Also highlights some rare forms.

International classification

According to this classification have a disease like multiple myeloma, stage is presented in 3 degrees of severity of the disease. They are determined by the size of the tumor mass. Also stage multiple myeloma are divided into A and b, depending upon the level of serum creatinine. Allocated multiple myeloma 1, 2, and multiple myeloma 3 degrees.

Reasons

The reason that occurs multiple myeloma blood or myeloma bone disease has not been determined.

The most common to date is the viral-genetic theory. Proceeding from it, in the human body are introduced of particular viruses. They fall into immature cells of the bone marrow and provoke the division of the latter. The hereditary role cannot be denied, often because such diseases occur in certain families and in individuals who have a disorder of structure of chromosomes.

Risk factors

  • physical (radiation, irradiation)
  • chemical nature (industrial, pharmaceutical)
  • biological (viruses, bacteria, microorganisms,

    ).

Symptoms

When a disease like multiple myeloma, the symptoms can be grouped into several syndromes.

Bone marrow syndrome in which tumor cells that multiply in the bone marrow, causing destruction of the bone.

Syndrome protein pathology in which stand the cells of M-components. There are problems with urination.

Peramelids is the deposition of protein produced by the tumor in different organs, which significantly disrupts their work. May manifest palpitations, problems of the heart, reduced joint mobility, pain.

Syndrome of insufficiency of antibodies has a direct link with the problems of hematopoiesis by tumor branches. Symptoms can be of colds, infections of the urinary tract.

Syndrome lesions of the internal organs – cause is the growth of tumors in different organs. The symptoms are pain and feeling of heaviness in podreberia and the area behind the breastbone.

The syndrome of increased blood viscosity associated with an increase in protein. Appear bleeding from the nose or gums, blurred vision and even paraproteinemic coma.

Hypercalcemia associated with bone destruction in the growth process of tumors. Among the symptoms are vomiting, nausea, poor appetite, drowsiness.

Diagnosis

If there is a suspicion that the patient has multiple myeloma, diagnosis includes the following methods

  • analysis of complaints and anamnesis of the disease (including symptoms of multiple myeloma and a predisposition to the disease)
  • the analysis of the anamnesis of life
  • physical examination
  • a blood test
  • urinalysis, determination of protein levels
  • biochemical analysis of blood
  • study of bone marrow through puncture
  • biopsy
  • a lumbar puncture
  • Ultrasonography and radiography of the bones of the skeleton
  • spiral computed tomography
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • electrocardiography
  • biopsy
  • research methods that are associated with the introduction into the organism of substances, which makes the tissue visible during an examination is prohibited as it is extremely dangerous for the kidneys
  • you may need to consult a physician.

The three main symptom of multiple myeloma are as follows

  • increased number of plasma cells in the bone marrow
  • the dissolution of bones
  • in urine or serum is present M component.

Treatment

If multiple myeloma treatment where necessary, is in the initial stages, tend to have expectant management. Clinical supervision is conducted and a decision about treatment only when the tumor increases or faster growth. Is

  • a bone marrow transplant. To date, only this method makes it possible to completely cure the myeloma. Rarely used, as there are a number of complications
  • chemotherapy (using drugs that kill cancer cells)

    • the basic principle of fast to rid the body of cancer cells
    • the choice of a regimen should be individually designed
    • The results can be evaluated in three months, given the decrease in the level of M-component
    • if the result is noticeable, then therapy should continue.
  • local radiation therapy (ionizing radiation to certain areas of the body for therapeutic purposes) are shown with limited tumor nodes in the bones and soft tissues, pain in the compression of the spinal cord, as well as the threat of bone fractures due to the growth of the tumor. Small doses with the aim of analgesia should not be used because they increase the likelihood of relapse in the irradiated area about 5 times
  • correction of disorders of protein and mineral metabolism. Used anabolic steroids (drugs that increase the synthesis of normal proteins), preparations of calcitonin and vitamin D (increases the flow of calcium from blood to cell), . (drugs that enhance bone regeneration). All these drugs are used after a resistant response to chemotherapy
  • treatment of infectious complications. Is a combination of antibiotics (drugs that prevent the growth of bacteria), antifungal and antiviral drugs, etc.
  • treatment of renal failure (violations of all of the functions of the kidneys). Includes

    • a diet with restriction of consumption of protein
    • drink plenty of liquids
    • when fluid retention diuretics (diuretics)
    • protivoepidemicheskie drugs (which reduces the level of creatinine product of protein breakdown)
    • chelators (affecting absorption from the intestine of harmful substances)
  • chronic renal failure, which has existed for 11.5 months, the need to transfer patients on extracorporeal methods of treatment, and later kidney transplant
  • extracorporeal methods of treatment that help to clean the blood outside the body through the use of special devices. This repeated procedure of plasmapheresis, hemodialysis, hemosorption. They help to eliminate the body of excess protein, reduce the risk of bleeding and kidney failure, help to eliminate the likelihood of paraproteinemic coma
  • treatment surgical methods. Apply in the case of bone fractures and compression of the spinal cord tumor
  • red blood cell transfusions (red blood cells, which are allocated from donor blood). Can be performed in case of anemia development by suppressing tumor normal production of blood cells carry out telephone rather vital indicators. The patient with anemia threatened two States

    • anemic coma (lose consciousness, and there is no reaction to external stimuli). Cause is insufficient intake of oxygen to the brain as the result of severe or rapidly developing reduction in the number of blood cells
    • the development of severe anemia.

Also with such diseases as multiple myeloma, treatment may include physiotherapy and exercise, which are the maximum allowable.

Complications

  • bone fractures because of an increased tumor
  • compression of the spinal cord from a tumor, which is accompanied by disturbance of sensation and movement problems of the limbs
  • complications of an infectious nature (infection of the kidney, respiratory and so on). It is this reason most often leads to death of myeloma patients
  • anemia
  • high bleeding
  • paraproteinemic coma due to the closure of the lumen in the vessels of the brain protein
  • the development of chronic renal failure (violated all of the functions of the kidneys).

Life expectancy in patients with multiple myeloma in the case of using the right methods of treatment may be from several months to 10 years. The average is 2430 months.

Prevention

Preventive measures has not yet been developed, because of risk factors that we can influence, yet. Also, there are no ways to identify the disease before symptoms appeared.