a disease in which intermittent attacks of headache, affecting one side of the head. In more cases, headaches with migraines are accompanied by a state of weakness and irritation. Sometimes can include nausea, vomiting, intolerance of bright light and sounds.
The cause of migraines is unknown, but attacks can be triggered by head injuries, physical activity, certain types of foods and medications or emotional factors arousal, stress, shock. Heredity is also important.
Forms of the disease are distinguished depending on the presence of certain signs, bearing the distinctive type.
There are the following types of migraine
- a simple form, or migraine without aura is the most common form of the disease. The manifestation of periodic headaches without compromising the ability of the limbs to motion and irregularities of human speech
- migraine with aura during the development of this category of migraine symptoms that precede the onset of pain in the head, and that is the weakness in the limbs, abnormalities of visual function, changes the clarity of speech. These signs can be easily removed in the period between the occurrence of pain in the head
- form with extended aura these symptoms are present for more than 1 hour but no longer than 1 week.
Studies of the brain are not diagnose the process of changing the structure of organ tissues.
Also experts divide the migraine in several forms, which are characterized by the atypical character of the course.
Among them there are the following types of migraine
- ocular migraine, also known as oftalmologicheskiy form of the disease. The cause of this migraine is a spasm of the posterior cerebral artery responsible for the supply of blood to the occipital lobes of the brain. Manifestations of this form of the headache attacks, accompanied by loss of one or another area of human eyesight. In some cases there may be strabismus, bearing temporary
- the retinal form of the disease at the heart of development is a spasm of the Central retinal artery. Is characterized by short-term blindness one or both eyes of the patient
- cervical migraine occurs when damage to the cervical vertebral arteries
- migraine basilar form is diagnosed mostly in girls during puberty. Has a direct relationship with deviations in the function of the blood supply of the brain stem. The main manifestation of the headache, accompanied by processes of clouding of consciousness, can also numb the lips and tongue, you may experience dizziness.
Migraine in children often occurs in the form when the headache is accompanied by nausea and the appearance of the so-called stars in her eyes.
To date, experts still did not examine all possible factors that may cause the development of migraine in humans.
The facts known to science, suggests that inflammatory processes in the region of the endings of the trigeminal nerve, abnormalities in the functioning of the systems that are responsible for pain, substances of hormonal origin, known as serotonin, may be the probable reasons for the development of migraine. Each of these factors exerts its influence on the progress of migraine.
For example, serotonin provokes narrowing of the blood vessels in the brain, what causes the pain of a pulsating character. Subsequent termination of exposure is the reason for the sharp expansion of vessels, leading to pain expander nature.
The main symptom of migraine is the attack that occurs periodically, which can last up to three days.
Characteristics which define an attack of migraine are
- headache – in most cases, the pain striking in one part of the head, bilateral pain is much less. The start of a headache migraine is characterized by pain which is sharp throbbing in nature. Over time feelings change on spilled stupid
- the emergence of fear and intolerance of light – manifested through pain in eyes, heavy pain of the head when in a bright room or when looking at light source
- the appearance of inadmissibility sounds high volume is a manifestation of this symptom of migraine is pain in the head and ears in the presence of a loud sound next to a man
- nausea, vomiting, condition of irritability and General weakness
- limitations or the inability to perform motor functions of the limbs of one side of the body.
In addition, there may be signs related to the abnormalities of the functioning of certain areas of the brain. Basically, these symptoms appear before the headache.
Diagnostic measures in cases of migraine
- analysis of complaints
- the neurological examination of the plan
- the implementation of electroencephalography
- the imaging computer and a magnetic resonance type
- therapeutic consultation.
At the time when the treatment of migraine in the first place stop the pain. Next, the patient is transferred to a state of calm, providing soft lighting, quiet.
In addition, the apply medication drugs, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilatory effects. Also with the help of medication blocks the receptors sensitive to discharge serotonin. Can be administered the antiemetic drug of the nature of the action.
As a preventive measure, the measures are applied with the use of drugs and means of prevention without medication. The second group includes reducing the amount of stress in the workplace and in the patient’s home, ensuring adequate sleep, massage. Medication preventive measures involve the use of antidepressants, anticonvulsant drugs principle of operation on the patient.