it is pretty sharp and dangerous disease, the causative agent of which is the meningococcus. Man is the only source of the pathogen. Meningococcal disease in children much more common than in adults. The incubation period of the disease lasts 110 days, but usually it’s 46 days.
There are two forms of meningococcal disease. Distinguish between localized and generalized forms of infectious disease.When the localized form of the person can be a carrier of the meningococcus. The fungus develops and lives on the mucous membranes of the nose, and from there released into the environment. A localized form of the disease manifests in the form of meningococcal nasopharyngitis. Then the symptoms of the disease resemble the common cold. Meningococcal nasopharyngitis may be an independent disease or to signal the approach of meningitis.
In the framework of the generalized form develops meningococcal meningitis or meningococcal sepsis. In meningococcal meningitis (inflammation of the Dura of the brain) affects the brain, the disease is difficult, often ends in death of the patient. No less dangerous and meningococcal sepsis. The symptoms appear and grow quite rapidly characteristic rash appears, stop the work of almost all organs. Often this disease leads to death.
Meningococcus is transmitted solely from person to person. You can become infected from a patient or bacillicarriers. In the second case, no symptoms, although the person secretes infection in the environment. The infection is transmitted mainly by droplets when you cough or sneeze of the source of infection. You can become infected only during close contact with a sick person or a carrier of the infection distance is less than 0.5 metres is considered dangerous, the duration of the communication must not be less than 2 hours.
Scientists have determined that there is a genetic predisposition to infection. Usually, the peak incidence occurs in the autumn-winter period when the immune system is weakened by lack of vitamins and there are frequent hypothermia.
As noted above, the carrier of the disease symptoms of meningococcal disease may not appear.
Patients with the same clinical picture depends on the form of infection
- nasopharyngitis inflamed mucous membranes of the nose and throat. The patient complains of sore throat, nasal congestion, typical in the case of the common cold. The temperature rises to C. 37,538 Health is deteriorating slightly. As noted above, nasopharyngitis may be a harbinger
- meningitis inflames the Dura. Disease begins acutely. Very often you can even define the time when there was an infection. The temperature rises to 3940, is accompanied by a fever and frequent vomiting, headache, convulsions. The patient suffers from hypersensitivity, hypersensitivity to all stimuli, sounds seem too loud, light too bright, increases the sensitivity of the skin. In this state, possible fainting, loss of consciousness, probably the onset of coma.
- among the specific symptoms it should be noted rigidity of the muscles at the back they are reduced and tense. The patient is unable to press to a breast a chin, in a serious condition to raise it and even tear away from the cushion. The legs straighten with difficulty symptom Brudzinskogo. Characteristic posture of the setter, when the head is thrown back, and his legs pulled up to the stomach
- meningococcemia is characterized by the reproduction and circulation of the meningococcus in the blood of the patient, there is a loss of all organs. On the development of the disease indicates a sharp rise in temperature, often up to 40 degrees Celsius. The patient becomes lethargic, hardly moves (weakness), but at the same time restless. Causes nausea, vomiting. Around the joints can often see the swelling, they hurt when moving.
On the patient’s body appear characteristic rash. Rash in meningococcal infection is in the form of stars, rising above the surface of the skin, blue-violet color. The place of its localization cheeks, chest, abdomen, thighs, buttocks, sometimes even the whites of the eyes.
For severe forms of the disease characterized by rapid development. The body temperature rises to the level of 41 degrees Celsius. Rash is more abundant, they merge into a huge spot. Open bleeding, including internal. Blood pressure can fall to zero, the heartbeat of much learning. Urination not. Usually, the patient dies within the first day after the first symptoms.
Diagnosis of meningococcal disease consists of several items.
When a patient visits the doctor performs a General examination. It examines the clinical picture, based on patient complaints and the survey asks about contacts, about possible outbreaks of infection, for example, in the team. The inspection of the patient on the subject of a characteristic rash, and the condition of the occipital muscles, symptoms Kerning, Budzinski. For correct diagnosis blood test on the content of white blood cells, smear a thick drop of blood for meningococcal disease and determined the sensitivity of the pathogen to drugs antibiotic therapy. In case you want to hold spinal puncture for analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for signs of purulent inflammation.
A swab from the nose helps to detect meningococcus, especially with asymptomatic carriers. Also performed PCR of blood and CSF tests that can detect DNA of the pathogen. The examination involved a neurologist, infectious disease, and in the case of pregnant obstetrician-gynecologist.
In the case of a diagnosis of meningitis or meningococcal sepsis needs urgent admission to hospital.
If we are talking about a pregnant patient, then appointment therapy is necessary to consult with an Ob / GYN. Since meningitis is a serious threat to the life, therapy is prescribed by vital indications of the patient. The basis for the assignment of certain antibiotics in all forms of the disease are the results of the analysis to assess sensitivity of meningococcus to drugs. In addition to antibiotic therapy, the patient is prescribed intramuscularly – antipyretics, intravenous solutions of glucose with vitamins, saline solutions. At the same time being hormonal and vitamin therapy. Diuretics help reduce swelling of the brain.
If nasopharyngitis the patient is prescribed vitamins and antiseptic preparations for washing the nose. Untimely or not suitable treatment of meningococcal infection may lead to serious consequences, including death.
This infection is dangerous for pregnancy. She complicates it, can lead to miscarriage, premature delivery, placental abruption. Also the agent is able to penetrate the placenta that faces the fetus death, developmental delay or various anomalies
With the development of meningitis or meningococcal sepsis there is often infectious-toxic shock caused by the activity of the pathogen, which may lead to death of the patient. If the patient is given timely medical aid, the disease passes without serious consequences for the patient.
Not always the infection goes unnoticed for health. Perhaps the development of asthenic syndrome, where after recovery the patient feels General weakness, lethargy, recurring headaches. Often there is increased intracranial pressure (hypertensive syndrome), reduction of muscle strength in one half of the body (hemiparesis), deteriorating hearing. In some cases a direct consequence of meningitis epilepsy. It develops due to the formation of pathological excitation in the cerebral cortex.
Prevention of meningococcal disease will help to avoid development of inflammation of the brain. Patients meningococcal disease must be isolated to the incidence of meningococcal disease does not spread further.
From infection protect protivoanemicescoe vaccine her if necessary, vaccinated pregnant women. If there was contact with a carrier of the infection, prescribed with antibiotics and specific immunoglobulins.
To reduce the risk of infection in the winter will help taking multivitamins or vitamin C. In the period of full health must conduct tempering procedure, and also to avoid hypothermia.