- The reasons for the development of the disease
- Signs of meningitis in children
- The treatment of meningitis in children
- Prevention of meningitis in children
- The consequences of the disease
Meningitis is a very contagious disease, which manifests itself in the form of inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord. This disease is rather easily transmitted from person to person and are extremely dangerous, especially when encountering patients of younger age. High level of hazard suggests the need of a rapid response to the disease, so it is very important to know its causes and be able to identify the symptoms of diseases such as meningitis in children.
In order to discern and understand the signs of meningitis baby, you need to understand the causes of disease and how it is transmitted from the carrier of the infection. In fact, depending on what triggered the disease, the symptoms may vary from each other. So, first of all, acquaintance with the manifestations of the disease should begin with its causes.
The reasons for the development of the disease
The main causes of meningitis in children mean getting into the tissues of the meninges of the microorganism, the pathogen. These germs are of several types viruses, bacteria, fungus, parasites. The most frequent provocateurs, in the case of meningitis are viruses and bacteria. It depends on which of these microorganisms triggered a disease can change first signs of meningitis in children.
Transmitted meningitis in children, like any infectious disease, air-borne or food, through contact with a carrier of the infection. Once in the body of a child with weak immunity, the pathogen easily penetrates through the skin and mucous membranes the skin into the blood. Then transported by the circulation, it reaches the meninges. And then begins the development of inflammation, the main symptom of meningitis.
Signs of meningitis in children
Once meningitis is transmitted, in children, it is not immediately evident in the form of symptoms. The fact is that, in both adults and children, from the moment of infection before the malicious microorganism in blood and the destruction of their meninges, passes some time. The so-called incubation period of meningitis in children before the disease will manifest first signs, can last from 12 hours to three days. Often this period of time is longer, as in children, the disease progresses at double speed.
The most important issue in the diagnosis of meningitis in children, is how to define it. The mere development of an infectious disease in a child greatly complicates the determination of the type of the disease depending on what the age of the patient. In the case that the first symptoms of meningitis occur in children under the age of 3 years, to explain what was bothering him, the patient can not. Therefore, in order to recognize meningitis in a child, you need how to monitor his condition and to pay attention to the child’s behavior.
All the signs of meningitis can be divided into two categories of common infectious signs and specific symptoms of a disease, such as children’s meningitis. The first category includes a list of signs common to almost all infectious diseases accompanied by inflammation. In the second specific symptoms, such as meningitis seen in children and adolescents.
General infectious symptoms of child meningitis
The General symptoms of meningitis-infectious nature are standard for infectious diseases, changes in the health of the child. Such characteristics include
- the increase in body temperature
- change the color of the skin (pallor, cyanosis sometimes)
- muscle pain
- General weakness of the body
- loss of appetite.
Depending on the reasons that triggered the inflammation, can change some variables. For example, if the viral disease type of pathogen, the temperature in meningitis in children increases up to the highest limits. When the bacterial form of meningitis can appear purulent discharge from the ear canals of the patient.
In complicated course of the disease may also noticeable lowering blood pressure. The patient is depressed and may withdraw not only from food but also from drinking.
Specific signs of the disease
Specific symptoms of such diseases as meningitis, it is best to understand how to test for meningitis in children. This is especially useful when the manifestation of disease in infants (under 1 year). Such patients, not much will be able to assist in determining the type of disease. In the case of suspected inflammation, in children under one year, as the first symptom of meningitis, examines the fontanel (skull bones are not closed). If you experience inflammation, the fontanel becomes inflamed, swells and starts to throb noticeably.
Specific symptoms of meningitis in children in the first place, is acutely manifest in the behavior and well-being. Such characteristics include
- severe headache (the child is constantly trying to cover the head or rubs it)
- painful reaction to bright light, loud sound
- cramping and twitching (the first sign of meningitis in children aged 2 to 5 years)
- anxiety touch
- irritable behavior that is sharply replaced by lethargy
- nausea and vomiting not associated with meals.
Rarely with meningitis may manifest skin rashes in children. In addition to the physical symptoms of meningitis, which may occur in children, there are specific features characteristic only for this disease. These include meningeal syndrome and symptom Lesage.
The peculiarity of the manifestations of meningeal syndrome is to try to tilt the patient’s head to your chest until it is in horizontal position. With the development in the patient of the inflammation of the meninges, his legs at the knee and hip joints, uncontrolled bend.
Symptom Lesage also checks the presence in the body of the child of the disease by testing motor responses. Otherwise, it is called the posture setter dog. The essence of this test is that when a child is kept by the armpits, his head throws back, and the legs are pulled to the stomach.
Basically, signs of meningitis in children older than 3 years, and expressed quite clearly that he doesn’t want to leave, parents have doubts about the necessity of seeking medical attention. Otherwise, the consequences can be irreversible. And depending on how early observed symptoms of meningitis in children, treatment will be faster and easier.
The treatment of meningitis in children
The treatment of meningitis in children should be performed only in a hospital under the isolation of the patient. Parents must, at the first suspicions, to call an ambulance for hospitalization. For a more precise definition of the disease carried out a series of tests. Also in meningitis in children to determine the possible consequences, it may be necessary to puncture the material of the spinal cord. The results of these studies treatment.
To eradicate harmful microorganisms throughout the body, the doctor usually appoints antibacterial agents. To ensure that the effect was noticeable, apply a broad-spectrum antibiotics. If the children have bacterial meningitis, you need to use the most powerful antibiotics.
Also, when asking about the viral nature of the disease, the antibiotics usually added mandatory medication of the antiviral action. All basic medicines are administered intravenously or into the spinal canal, for the quickest and most effective impact.
Also in the course of the medicines for treating the disease called meningitis, in children, can be prescribed antihistamines, dehydrogenase, antipyretic drugs. They are used to mitigate and eliminate the symptoms of the disease.
Prevention of meningitis in children
Prevention of meningitis in children requires special attention. First and foremost, we are talking about strict parents, and child personal hygiene. This also implies the maximum limit of contacts with possible carriers of infection, with both adults and children.
In the period of outbreak of serous meningitis, in order to, as best you can to protect your child from meningitis, it is necessary to limit the duration of stay in places with a mass congestion of people. And, when forced prolonged stay in public places, wear a medical mask and, if possible, limit contact with others.
If meningitis is seen in a kindergarten, the first thing to do is to take out the child. Such cases should be carefully monitored at the state level. When it occurs in kindergarten should be quarantined for meningitis.
The consequences of the disease
The consequences of meningitis in children in self-or incorrect treatment, usually imply disability or death. The consequences of meningitis childhood can manifest itself in the dysfunction of the nervous system, slow mental development and the mental health problems of the child.
Therefore, in order to avoid complications and irreversible consequences, when the first manifestations of the symptoms of meningitis, it is urgent to take the child to a medical facility. Only a qualified specialist can determine the type and stage of the disease and prescribe the correct treatment.