pathogenic process affecting the inner ear, involving slovestnosti disorders 8th pair of nerves of the area of the skull called the vestibulocochlear nerve. The main manifestation of disorders of dizziness accompanied by a sensation of tinnitus, which is in the nature of attacks. The first mention of the disease date back to 1860 in the works of prosper mnire, who was a French specialist in the field of medicine. In subsequent papers released Meniere’s disease. Under this name mean vestibular in nature, which can be of different Genesis. Disease suffered by people whose age is in the range of 3050 years. Mnire’s disease in children occurs in very rare cases.
The location of the inner ear, localized in the region of the petrosal part of the temporal bone. The composition of this body are bony and membranous labyrinths, in the form of repetitive. The membranous labyrinth is a collection of sacs and tubes, which is a closed system filled with endolymph. The space between bony and membranous channels filled with perilymph.
The presence of fluid in the labyrinth of the inner ear allows you to ensure the process of propagation of vibration to the area from the auditory ossicles to the cells of the sensory character. The membranous labyrinth is divided into two parts, the cochlea (auditory part) and on balance. Vestibulocochlear nerve the nerve with special sensitivity, is responsible for the transmission of an auditory impulse and impulses emanating from the region of the organ of balance in the inner ear of a person.
The basis for the development of disease-increase of endolymph that provoked deviations of the processes of adjustment of the pressure level in the spaces of the labyrinth of the inner ear lymphatic nature. The increased pressure level inside the ear leads to difficulties of conducting sound waves through the liquid medium of the ear labyrinth. Also the resulting poor nutrition of the receptors in the labyrinth.
Increasing the level of pressure that occur periodically, in most cases, the accompanying crisis of the maze because of the oppression of the cells of sensory type located in the maze. Clinical manifestation of this is the attack of Meniere’s disease.
The beginning of the development of the disease may be hearing loss or attacks of dizziness, wearing a vestibular in nature. The symptoms of Meniere’s disease is absolutely the same as in the development of Meniere’s disease.
To violations of an auditory type include a sensation of ear stuffiness or congestion directly, the emergence of sensations of fullness or fullness of the ear, the appearance of noise. Lowering the level of hearing can be a gradual increase or oscillatory in nature (fluctuating). In the period of initial development of the disease the fall of the rumor has been going on for several days, but in the subsequent time development of the fluctuations of hearing acquires a specific for this disease in nature.
Attacks that are vestibular in nature, manifested by a systematic dizziness. Duration of attacks varies from 13 hours, sometimes a seizure can last up to 56 hours. During the attack the patient has a sensation of rotation of objects, also the surrounding objects can move in space. In more rare cases, vestibular seizures manifested by sensations of falling or rotation of the body of the patient. To accompany this attack can nausea, vomiting, balance disorder, increased sweating, increased blood pressure, increased body temperature and frequent urination.
Attacks do not have a stable frequency of occurrence. In most cases, the development of Meniere’s disease observed in the processes of alternating bouts of high frequency and periods of prosperity. The highest level of progress of the disease occurs within the first two years of the disease. A special role for the speed of progress is having the treatment of Meniere’s disease.
To date not identified a clear reason why the development of this disease. Information which have experts, is that the basis for progress is the deviation in the mechanism that regulates the pressure in the space ear labyrinth lymphatic nature. Modern experts believe that these processes are caused by abnormalities of the innervation of the vessels of the ear labyrinth of vegetative character. There are the following factors influencing the progress of Meniere’s disease
- infectious processes and allergic reactions
- vegetative dystonia, abnormalities in the metabolism of endolymph
- disturbances in the ionic balance of fluids inside the labyrinth of the ear
- broken food
- disorders of water and vitamin exchange.
To diagnose this disease by applying to the relevant specialists. To date, confirmed information that it is impossible to completely cure Meniere’s disease. Treatment is symptomatic and directed at reducing the frequency of relapses of the patient, reducing the symptomatic severity. Also healing measures help prevention of hearing loss.
For these purposes, the apply medication the medications that have anticholinergic, antihistamine effect, benzodiazepines. Also used drugs, which have antiemetic effect, diuretics and diet with low salt content.
In the case of low effectiveness of these treatments applied surgery. Surgical methods include increasing the volume of the SAC of the inner ear by removing a portion of bone, the tearing of the vestibular nerve in the region responsible for the equilibrium, and introduction to the area of the inner ear antibiotic drugs, e.g. streptomycin or gentamicin.