the disease that came from tropical countries and by its very nature is parasitic. Like most tropical diseases, has natural form and transmitted to humans through the bites of mosquitoes. It is important to note that forms of leishmaniasis are only three cutaneous, Muco-cutaneous and visceral. The most common skin type of the disease, while visceral is the cause of many severe cases of the disease and the hardest tolerated by the human body.
The causative agent of leishmaniasis Leishmania, namely protozoa and is transmitted only from the female mosquito. There are several forms of the disease, and several major clinical types of the disease that depend on the type of parasite, vector and environmental conditions of the area of habitat of a parasite and the infection. Proven pattern of diseases depending on previous epidemics among population groups.
Visceral leishmaniasis (among the local population can be heard the name Kala-Azar, which is very common) manifests itself by many symptoms, among which are bouts of fever that do not have clear regularity, intense weight loss, inflammation with subsequent enlargement of the spleen and liver, and possible anemia. The disease is widely distributed on the territory of the Indian subcontinent and East Africa. Most of the cases recorded in the Sudan, South Sudan, Bangladesh, India, Ethiopia and Brazil, as well as in the amount is from 200 to 400 thousand new cases per year. The rest of the country is not more than 10% of diseases, and dry and cold latitudes are practically unknown. The most susceptible inhabitants of hot and tropical regions, living in poor houses made of clay and containing cattle near the premises. The disease also affected and the owners of Pets, particularly dogs and cats, which attract mosquitoes. No less dangerous and large crowds, particularly during the holidays or demonstrations recorded the mass slaughter of the citizens of leishmaniasis.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most studied and common form of the disease. First easily diagnosed on open wounds and ulcers on the body, which is caused by a virus. Despite the opportunity to cure, people have scars the rest of your life and severe complications, sometimes reaching to the disability. The spread of such diseases differs from that of visceral leishmaniasis, the centers of the epidemic have on countries such as Iran, Algeria, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Colombia. The disease can be found in many countries of Central Asia. Every year cutaneous leishmaniasis affects more than 700,000 people around the world.
Muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis. Symptoms sharp pain throat, nose. Nausea and dizziness may increase the temperature and fever. This form is common in American countries like Peru, Brazil, Bolivia.
Leishmaniasis has the following symptoms of the patient’s face is covered with a severe rash and acne, nodular rash affects the hands and torso. The incubation period of the disease is large enough and the first symptoms manifest only after 56 months after infection, which introduces certain difficulties in the timely treatment of the disease in the early stages. Poor environmental conditions, low living standards, problems with medicine all contribute to the manifestation of complications in patients and epidemiological nature of the disease.
Generally, leishmaniasis is diagnosed by means of tests and clinical signs. Diagnosis of leishmaniasis is usually done when using the combined methods and, despite the availability of rapid verification of the presence of parasites in the body, the results have slight error, but in cutaneous leishmaniasis the relevance of these methods is questioned. Medical research suggests the complete course of the survey. First and foremost, it is recommended to take for analysis samples of lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow. In case of negative results the necessary conditions is a thorough examination of the patient by a dermatologist and registration. The examination is repeated for several months. If the causative agents of leishmaniasis was discovered, used the method of DNA hybridization, which allows to determine the patterns of the disease. For a similar analysis it is possible to use monochannel antibodies whose practice is well established in the Americas. For further results we recommend the use of enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) that allows the identification of parasites with high accuracy.
Studies regarding treatment of leishmaniasis are in progress up to the present time. Many drugs have proven their efficiency and annually save the lives of more than 91% of applicants for treatment of patients, but the use of existing methods in the later stages of the disease is ineffective. If untreated, the mortality rate is over 90% infected die during the year after contact with the virus. In addition to high mortality, many challenges are delivered and complications, formed after treatment of discolored spots on the skin, warts and nodules, scars from ulcers and scars.
Currently used for the treatment of the following medications once a day must be taken 2060 mgkg of meglumine antimonate, exclusively by intramuscular injection. It is important to follow the course of treatment and do not interrupt it before 20 days, at the same time, do not tighten more than 30, which can cause various kinds of complications. However, at relapse, it is necessary to conduct repeated treatment, doubled to 60 days. To reinforce the results, we recommend the use of allopurinol 2030 mgkg per day. The medication is available in tablet form. There have been cases of relapse after use of meglumine antimonate and especially for such cases, we recommend that an alternative solution amphotericin b (intravenous).
The volumes are calculated based on 0,51,0 mgkg. It is important to observe the regularity and repeat the course through the day. Perhaps the use of interferon alpha, but without the need to resort to using not necessary. It is important to take into account that the treatment of leishmaniasis is similar to the treatment of cancerous tumors, the use of the above drugs is chemotherapy and severely undermines the patient’s body. For successful treatment it is necessary to comply with bed rest, efforts to conduct enhanced health of body and mouth, to eat well. It is possible to use various bituminoznykh drugs to alleviate the effects of the treatment. For patient-important peace and quiet, the chance to relax and recharge, which contributes to the smooth running of treatment and has a positive effect on future projections.