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Legionellosis Legionnaires Disease

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Legionellosis

disease related to infectious group has a relationship with the development of pneumonia, fever, intoxication. In its development, hurt the respiratory tract, Central nervous system, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract.

Path for transmission of Legionella aerosol, airborne and air-dust. These organisms are quite hardy, therefore can be transmitted even in cold places, through conditioning, in the pool or in natural bodies of water.

This disease is also another name for Legionnaires ‘ disease.

Reasons

The causative agent of this disease is the gram-negative anaerobe. Cause disease in humans, may 22 from 40 existing species of Legionella. More than 90% of cases of a man striking the causative agent of pneumophila.

To catch the disease fairly easily, because the microorganisms affecting the human body, are the usual habitat is in wet soil or reservoirs with stagnant water.

They have good adaptive capacity, because once in an artificial water-containing areas, they calmly accept their new environment, even if it is a fountain or a shower.

The infection occurs at the time of inhalation by the person of moist air in the habitat of these microorganisms.

The causative agent of legionellosis when hit in the respiratory tract leads to disruption of the functioning pulmonary parenchyma. Thus, this body is formed swelling, which leads to inflammation. Also it becomes the cause of accumulation and decay of blood cells.

The man is not the exciter or transmitter of infection, even in the case of close contact with the patient. Been identified and the possibility of Contracting Legionnaires ‘ disease from animals or birds.

Legionellosis is a fairly common disease that affects anyone, but the greatest danger it is for people with lowered immunity. It may be people in the elderly, smokers, etc.

Often, this disease infected the employees of hotels, health centers, health workers, because of their constant environment, stay present humid air emitted by air conditioners or other devices.

You should pay attention to sex predisposition to this disease according to statistics, men are more susceptible to legionellosis than women. Almost 2-3 times more often than they seek help in hospital.

Symptoms

Legionnaires ‘ disease, the symptoms of which are sufficiently pronounced, has an incubation period of from 2 to 10 days. However, on average, complaints to the medical institutions apply for 4-7 days after infection.

Almost always legionellosis occurs in the form of complicated pneumonia, because the symptoms of the disease is the same.

In the case of the prodromal period, which is rare, the illness can say such signs

  • constant headache
  • weakness
  • deteriorating appetite
  • diarrhea.

But, as a rule, the disease takes an acute form, and is expressed in

  • high body temperature, reaching the maximum limits
  • the progression of intoxication, reflected in pains in head, chills, sweating, arthralgia and
    .

After the disease struck the Central nervous system, appear more clear and defining disease symptoms

  • lethargy
  • emotional instability
  • hallucinations and delusions
  • repeated fainting
  • the perception of the environment
  • paralysis.

After 3-4 days started wet cough with mucous discharge, sometimes there is blood in the expectoration. Permanent manifests itself as shortness of breath and chest pain.

Diagnosis

When the disease legionellosis diagnosis goes through many stages. Carefully displayed the full clinical picture, the patient is sent for x-ray examination of lung tissue. Also collected epidemiological anamnesis to detect in the presence of the substance in the body Legionella. It is also important laboratory tests that are inferred through analysis.

About the disease is the presence in the blood of leukocytosis with a shift leukocyte formula to the left, and lymphopenia.

Also used biochemical studies that reveal hyponatremia, hypoalbuminemia and hypophosphatemia.

In the body become more active aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, urea and creatinine increase its levels in the body.

Applied and serological methods, among which analysis can be used in the reaction of indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, passive hemagglutination, and to identify the causative agent are Express methods.

Treatment

In the case of a pneumatic detection of disease Legionnaires ‘ disease, the treatment is fixed. Doctor given oral antibiotics or immunomodulators, the appointment can also be integrated.

Can negatively influence self-medication, because even while at home, should regularly visit a specialist. If the person is under the supervision of, almost lost the chance of complications of the disease.

Symptomatic treatment is allowed in case of concomitant disease fever.

Full hospitalization is required when appearance due to illness

or alveolitis.

The percentage of death in pneumatic form of legionellosis is high enough, 15-20%, because it is not necessary to delay treatment to the specialists, because with timely diagnosis, the mortality rate is reduced to 4-7%.

If this disease is accompanied by fever, then fatal would be safe, but to take the help of a doctor this should be a fairly safe form of the disease can develop into more acute form, which, in turn, will have a percentage of deaths in case of complications.