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Laryngotracheitis

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Laryngotracheitis

is an inflammatory process of infectious etiology which attacks the larynx and the trachea. The disease can develop as a complication of the following diseases pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, rhinitis and sinusitis. In addition, this disease can cause the development of bronchitis, pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Laryngotracheitis in children under the age of six, often provokes narrowing of the larynx and the development of false croup.


Reasons

Most often agents of the disease are adenoviruses and the viruses that cause such conditions

  • SARS
  • flu
  • rubella
  • measles
  • scarlet fever
  • varicella.

Sometimes provocateurs of inflammation are bacteria

  • beta-hemolytic Streptococcus
  • aureus
  • pneumococcus
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (very rare)
  • Treponema pallidum (compared to tertiary syphilis)
  • Mycoplasma infection
  • chlamydia.

The infection spreads from person to person through the air, that is airborne. But there are cases when the disease does not develop, although the body has penetrated the infection. This phenomenon is observed at a sufficiently high immunity and low infectious ability of the pathogen.

Factors that contribute to the development of the disease and the emergence of chronic forms of

  • a weak immune system
  • stagnant processes respiratory channel
  • constant mouth breathing
  • hot or cold air
  • too dry or too moist air
  • getting on the mucous membranes of the larynx and trachea of irritants
  • big load on the trachea and larynx
  • Smoking.


Types

Taking into account the causes that influence the occurrence of the inflammatory process, there are the following types of illness

  • bacterial
  • viral
  • viral and bacterial or mixed.

given the fact, how exactly is the disease, there are such forms

  • the acute form
  • a chronic form.

Acute laryngotracheitis is cured completely, and only lasts a few weeks. In some cases it is possible to increase this period, and the transition of the disease into a chronic form, which has a more prolonged course and is characterized by the alternation of outbreaks and attenuation of the inflammatory process with worsening in the fall and winter.

Given the morphological changes of the chronic form of the disease is divided into the following types

  • catarrhal process
  • hypertrophic
  • atrophic.

In the acute form of the disease affected mucous membrane becomes bright red shade. In the trachea and larynx accumulates pus, mucous secreted soaked it with fluid and becomes thicker. After some time there are fibrinous film, and if the disease was caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus, formed a yellow-green peel, which fills the Airways. However, their lumen narrows and evolves stenosing laryngotracheitis.

In the catarrhal process, the mucosa becomes cyanotic in color and thickens due to the accumulation in it of infiltration. Vessels located beneath the mucous epithelium, dilate and bleed.

Hypertrophic process is characterized by hyperplasia of mucosal epithelium with glands and connective tissue. There is also infiltration of the muscles of the trachea, larynx and vocal cords. The vocal cords may bulge in the form of nodes. This phenomenon occurs in people whose work is connected with constant high activity of the vocal apparatus. Sometimes the ventricle of the larynx is formed by a prolapse, contact ulcer or cyst.

In atrophic process, the cylindrical epithelium is replaced by flat. At the same time the muscles of the larynx with mucosa glands atrophy. The vocal cords become thin, and mucus, which is produced by the gland dries up.


Symptoms

In the acute form of the disease the following symptoms

  • high temperature
  • runny nose
  • sore and sore throat
  • discomfort when swallowing.

After the temperature decreases a little, sometimes show signs of viral infection.

Cough with laryngotracheitis with acute form, dry, and in some cases barking. In this case, patient feels pain behind the breastbone. Cough usually bother night and morning. At this time, a small quantity of viscous mucus, which gradually becomes more fluid and abundant, and in it there is pus. The voice of the patient becomes hoarse and throat dry. There is a feeling of a foreign body and burning.

Often with this condition grow and begin to ache lymph nodes located in the neck. Noisy breathing, moist rales are listened in the trachea.

The chronic form of the disease is manifested so

  • violation of voices
  • cough
  • discomfort behind the sternum and in the larynx.

Hoarseness can be periodic (occurring usually in the morning and evening) and constant. Sometimes the voice load leads to the fact that the patient feels fatigue. Constant hoarseness suggests that the vocal cords are exposed to hypertrophic or keratosis changes.

Also a chronic form of the disease is characterized by a constant cough with little sputum. In the acute stage there are bouts of cough with abundant sputum.


Complications

If the infection migrates in respiratory canal down from the trachea, that provokes the development of tracheobronchitis and pneumonia. In children it may be bronchiolitis. This increases the temperature, there are more pronounced signs of intoxication, cough becomes constant. In the lungs are heard wheezing.

Phlegm in the larynx, and spasm of laryngeal muscles in acute form of the disease (acute stenosing laryngotracheitis) can cause the development of false croup in children. Shortness of breath can cause a panic attack, which can result in death.

Since the chronic form of the disease the mucous membrane is constantly irritated, may develop benign tumors. Moreover, this form of the disease, especially if it is associated with hypertrophy, sometimes leads to the development of cancer.


Diagnosis

To diagnose the disease in the first place we need to interview the patient. This survey will provide an opportunity to establish symptoms and collect medical history. Along with this, apply other methods of diagnosis

  • visual inspection
  • palpation and listening to the lungs
  • laryngotracheotomy
  • laboratory studies
  • radiography
  • CT.

Microlaryngoscopy to determine the form of the disease. Sometimes biopsy. Bacteriological examination helps to identify the causative agent. To do this, take a sputum cultures and smears from the mucous membranes of the nose and throat. We conducted a study of sputum to identify bacteria kislorodozawisimam.

If was revealed the chronic form of the disease with the presence of hypertrophic changes, you need to consult oncologist. There is a CT (computed tomography) of the larynx and biopsy.

Treatment

Laryngotracheitis in adults and in children does not require the room of a patient in a hospital, except in cases of false croup in young patients.

In case of acute or exacerbation of chronic patient are shown drinking large amounts of fluid. To be a man needs in a warm room with high humidity.

If you were diagnosed with viral laryngotracheitis, the treatment is carried out with the help of antivirus tools. Bacterial and mixed types of diseases are treated with antibiotics.

Treating the symptoms of laryngotracheitis is prescribing, oppressive cough, reduces temperature, and antihistamines and mucolytics, electrophoresis and inhalation.

In the chronic form shown immunomodulatory therapy, vitamin C, vitamin complexes carbozistein, electrophoresis of drugs, UHF, inhalation, massage and inductotherapy.

In some cases conduct surgical treatment. This occurs when drug therapy does not help to get rid of the disease. In addition, surgical intervention may be indicated when the risk of development of malignant tumors.


Prevention

The prevention of this disease is to vaccinate against viruses, eating various vitamins and natural phytoncides. You must also follow the rules of personal hygiene, to ventilate the dwelling and working space, eat right and try not to contact with infection carriers.